Our Sponsor Sideshow Send us News
Lord of the Rings Tolkien
Search Tolkien
Lord of The RingsTheOneRing.net - Forged By And For Fans Of JRR Tolkien
Lord of The Rings Serving Middle-Earth Since The First Age

Lord of the Rings Movie News - J.R.R. Tolkien

  Main Index   Search Posts   Who's Online   Log in
The One Ring Forums: Tolkien Topics: Reading Room:
The Siege of Gondor I -- Words, Sentences, Paragraphs, Sections.

N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Sep 22 2008, 5:16am

Post #1 of 20 (2387 views)
Shortcut
The Siege of Gondor I -- Words, Sentences, Paragraphs, Sections. Can't Post

Welcome to this week’s installment in our ongoing discussion of The Lord of the Rings. We have reached chapter 4 of Book V, “The Siege of Gondor”. This is the fourth-longest of LotR’s 62 chapters. Only “The Council of Elrond”, “Treebeard”, and “Minas Tirith” are longer.

“The Siege of Gondor” is divided into twenty-three sections (question for typographers: is there a better term than “sections” for the chapter’s primary subdivisions?), all but one of which are further divided into paragraphs, of which there are 198 in all. These paragraphs of composed of 817 sentences, and the sentences are made up of some 11,718 words (11,544 if you count names like “Withered Tree” as one word). That works out to an average of 14.3 words per sentence, 59.2 words per paragraph, and 509.5 words per section. Or 4.1 sentences per paragraph, and 35.5 sentences per section. Or 8.6 paragraphs per section. Of course the words, sentences, and paragraphs are very unevenly distributed across the chapter.

Here is a list of the sections with short descriptions, showing the number of paragraphs (), sentences (s), and words (w) in each, as well as the percentage of the chapter’s total word count each section occupies:

I. - 7¶, 14s, 155w (1%) - - Pippin wakes and eats a small breakfast.
II. - 12¶, 42s, 685w (6%) - - He is assigned as Denethor’s esquire, and gets a uniform.
III. - 8¶, 34s, 559w (5%) - - He sups with Beregond in the early evening.
IV. - 15¶, 82s, 1164w (10%) - - The Nazgûl attack Faramir, who is rescued by Gandalf.
V. - 36¶, 135s, 1865w (16%) - - Faramir reports to Denethor, who is displeased.
VI. - 8¶, 53s, 496w (4%) - - Pippin and Gandalf talk about Frodo and Gollum.
VII. - 12¶, 39s, 574w (5%) - - Denethor sends Faramir to defend Osgiliath and the Causeway Forts.
VIII. - 2¶, 8s, 110w (1%) - - People worry that Rohan will not come.
IX. - 2¶, 5s, 105w (1%) - - Scouts report the Morgul army is nearing Osgiliath.
X. - 3¶, 14s, 200w (2%) - - News arrives of defeat at the river, and Gandalf rides out.
XI. - 16¶, 58s, 796w (7%) - - Gandalf tells Denethor of the retreat from the Rammas.
XII. - 4¶, 17s, 211w (2%) - - The enemy advances across the Pelennor.
XIII. - 10¶, 46s, 731w (6%) - - A sortie stalls the advance, but Faramir is sorely wounded.
XIV. - 2¶, 13s, 211w (2%) - - The city is encircled. Ingold reports no news of the Rohirrim.
XV. - 8¶, 37s, 858w (7%) - - The city is attacked with fire and horror.
XVI. - 6¶, 23s, 318w (3%) - - Denethor grieves and despairs, abandoning his command.
XVII. - 2¶, 10s, 226w (2%) - - Gandalf comforts the troops, but it isn’t enough.
XVIII. - 1¶, 7s, 139w (1%) - - The Witch-king sends siege engines to the walls.
XIX. - 8¶, 43s, 381w (3%) - - Denethor determines to kill himself and dismisses Pippin.
XX. - 21¶, 74s, 1083w (9%) - - Pippin leaves Denethor, asks Beregond to help, and seeks Gandalf.
XXI. - 8¶, 36s, 559w (5%) - - Grond breaks the City Gate.
XXII. - 5¶, 19s, 204w (2%) - - Gandalf confronts the Witch-king.
XXIII. - 2¶, 8 s, 84w (1%) - - A cock crows, and Rohan arrives.

Why is the chapter structured this way? Do you notice these divisions as you read? How does the varying length, as shown above, help or hinder the chapter?


Here is the same list, but showing the average number of words per sentence, words per paragraph, and sentences per paragraph for each section. I also list each paragraph by its first three words, with a note indicating the number of sentences and words in each.

I. 7¶, 14s, 155w. - averages: 2.0 s/¶; 11.1 w/s; 22 w/¶.
¶ -- Pippin was roused (2s, 28w); ‘What is the (1s, 7w); ‘Past the second (3s, 28w); ‘And will he (1s, 5w); ‘No! I have (2s, 19w); Pippin looked ruefully (2s, 35w); ‘You know quite (3s, 33w)

II. 12¶, 42s, 685w. - averages: 3.5 s/¶; 16.3 w/s; 57 w/¶.
¶ -- Before long he (4s, 67w); ‘Well, Master Peregrin, (2s, 31w); Pippin had an (2s, 37w); ‘What would you (1s, 7w); ‘I thought, sir, (1s, 10w); ‘I will, when (5s, 69w); ‘Yes,’ said Pippin. (5s, 54w); ‘And why should (3s, 51w); Pippin’s heart sank. (6s, 107w); Presently Denethor waved (4s, 45w); It was as (6s, 138w); It was dark (3s, 69w)

III. 8¶, 34s, 559w . - averages: 4.3 s/¶; 16.4 w/s; 70 w/¶.
¶ -- About the eleventh (4s, 100w); It was the (2s, 75w); Already it seemed (2s, 61w); In some other (4s, 79w); ‘You are weary (1s, 8w); ‘Yes,’ said Pippin, (10s, 120w); ‘Nay,’ said Beregond, (6s, 68w); ‘Yes,’ said Pippin, (5s, 48w)

IV. 15¶, 82s, 1164w. - averages: 5.5 s/¶; 14.2 w/s; 78 w/¶.
¶ -- Suddenly as they (3s, 89w); At last Beregond (4s, 21w); Reluctantly Pippin climbed (4s, 77w); ‘Black Riders!’ muttered (11s, 61w); Another long screech (2s, 45w); ‘Faramir! The Lord (16s, 100w); With that Beregond (5s, 124w); ‘Gandalf!’ he cried. (6s, 39w); But now the (3s, 80w); Pippin watched, and (4s, 88w); It was not (3s, 128w); Pippin pressed forward (7s, 185w); ‘Faramir!’ he cried (3s, 32w); ‘Whence come you?’ (3s, 15w); But with that (8s, 80w)

V. 36¶, 135s, 1865w. - averages: 3.8 s/¶; 13.8 w/s; 52 w/¶.
¶ -- So at length (2s, 55w); When Faramir had (3s, 129w); Then suddenly Faramir (3s, 34w); At that Gandalf (3s, 91w); As his story (5s, 106w); ‘Cirith Ungol? Morgul (5s, 24w); ‘I parted with (7s, 113w); Gandalf paced the (3s, 24w); ‘Some twenty-five leagues (7s, 95w); ‘Ill?’ cried Denethor, (7s, 86w); ‘My son, your (4s, 46w); ‘If what I (1s, 31w); ‘Would that have (6s, 64w); ‘So be it,’ (1s, 5w); ‘So be it!’ (2s, 37w); ‘Do you wish (1s, 12w); ‘Yes, I wish (4s, 40w); For a moment (4s, 50w); ‘Stir not the (5s, 51w); ‘Comfort yourself!’ (6s, 65w); The face of (6s, 80w); ‘What then is (1s, 7w); ‘Enough to perceive (3s, 48w); ‘And the Lord (1s, 9w); ‘Neither. But most (4s, 78w); ‘You think, as (3s, 34w); ‘And where will (3s, 61w); ‘Nonetheless I do (7s, 119w); For a moment (4s, 61w); ‘If I had! (8s, 80w); ‘It is not (2s, 20w); ‘Not enough, I (3s, 24w); ‘There and elsewhere (5s, 36w); ‘You are weary (2s, 24w); ‘Let us not (1s, 8w); ‘Then we will (3s, 18w)

VI. 8¶, 53 s, 496w. - averages: 6.6 s/¶; 9.4 w/s; 62 w/¶.
¶ -- All now took (4s, 57w); ‘Tell me,’ he (2s, 18w); Gandalf put his (15s, 156w); Gandalf stood for (16s, 139w); ‘But,’ said Pippin. (1s, 3w); ‘But what?’ said (2s, 11w); ‘Gollum,’ said Pippin. (4s, 40w); ‘I cannot answer (9s, 72w)

VII. 12¶, 39s, 574w. - averages: 3.3 s/¶; 14.7 w/s; 47 w/¶.
¶ -- The next day (2s, 69w); And now Faramir (4s, 51w); In truth Faramir (5s, 87w); ‘Yet,’ said Denethor, (4s, 83w); ‘That was but (4s, 61w); ‘And what of (6s, 63w); ‘Much must be (3s, 48w); Then all were (2s, 37w); ‘I do so,’ (1s, 5w); ‘Then farewell!’ said (2s, 13w); ‘That depends on (1s, 10w); Gandalf it was (5s, 47w)

VIII. 2¶, 8 s, 110w. - averages: 4.0 s/¶; 13.8 w/s; 55 w/¶.
¶ -- So now the (5s, 75w); ‘Yes, he will (3s, 35w)

IX. 2¶, 5s, 105w. - averages: 2.5 s/¶; 21.0 w/s; 53 w/¶.
¶ -- It was night (3s, 72w); With those ill-boding (2s, 33w)

X. 3¶, 14s, 200w. - averages: 4.7 s/¶; 14.3 w/s; 67 w/¶.
¶ -- The next day, (4s, 63w); ‘If he wins (8s, 98w); ‘Then I am (2s, 39w)

XI. 16¶, 58s, 796w. - averages: 3.6 s/¶; 13.7 w/s; 50 w/¶.
¶ -- The bells of (3s, 68w); ‘They have taken (3s, 16w); ‘Where is Faramir?’ (2s, 13w); It was Gandalf (6s, 133w); ‘Is Faramir come?’ (1s, 5w); ‘No,’ said Gandalf. (6s, 57w); ‘Not – the Dark (1s, 12w); Denethor laughed bitterly. (7s, 65w); He stood up (2s, 57w); ‘Yet now under (2s, 46w); ‘Then, Mithrandir, you (4s, 50w); Pippin trembled, fearing (6s, 95w); ‘Nay, I came (6s, 82w); ‘And we also (2s, 19w); ‘We are likely (4s, 34w); ‘Some have accused (3s, 44w)

XII. 4¶, 17s, 211w. - averages: 4.3 s/¶; 12.4 w/s; 53 w/¶.
¶ -- Time passed. At (6s, 92w); ‘The enemy,’ men (5s, 26w); It drew now (2s, 71w); The watchers held (4s, 22w)

XIII. 10¶, 46s, 731w. - averages 4.6 s/¶; 15.9 w/s; 73 w/¶.
¶ -- Now the main (7s, 104w); The retreat became (2s, 29w); And then a (4s, 90w); ‘Amroth for Gondor!’ (2s, 8w); Like thunder they (1s, 40w); The Nazgûl screeched (7s, 88w); But Denethor did (10s, 102w); Last of all (4s, 50w); ‘Faramir! Faramir!’ men (4s, 87w); The Prince Imrahil (5s, 133w)

XIV. 2¶, 13s, 211w. - averages: 6.5 s/¶; 16.2 w/s; 106 w/¶.
¶ -- So now at (4s, 101w); ‘There is no (9s, 110w)

XV. 8¶, 37s, 858w. - averages: 4.6 s/¶; 23.2 w/s; 107 w/¶.
¶ -- The Gate was (4s, 110w); Busy as ants (4s, 124w); At first men (2s, 72w); ‘Nay,’ they said, (7s, 54w); But the engines (4s, 95w); Soon there was (7s, 199w); In vain men (4s, 73w); The Nazgûl came (5s, 131w)

XVI. 6¶, 23s, 318w. - averages: 3.8 s/¶; 13.8 w/s; 53 w/¶.
¶ -- During all this (2s, 59w); No hours so (5s, 96w); ‘Do not weep, (3s, 15w); ‘Comfort me not (3s, 33w); ‘I sent my (3s, 62w); Men came to (7s, 53w)

XVII. 2¶, 10s, 226w. - averages: 5.0 s/¶; 22.6 w/s; 113 w/¶.
¶ -- So it was (6s, 137w); And yet – when (4s, 89w)

XVIII. 1¶, 7 s, 139w. - averages: 7.0 s/¶; 19.9 w/s; 139 w/¶.
¶ -- Far behind the (7s, 139w)

XIX. 8¶, 43s, 381w. - averages: 5.4 s/¶; 8.9 w/s; 48 w/¶.
¶ -- Messengers came again (2s, 32w); ‘The first circle (5s, 37w); ‘Why? Why do (13s, 73w); The messengers without (1s, 9w); Now Denethor stood (4s, 39w); ‘Farewell!’ he said. (8s, 63w); ‘I will not (6s, 106w); ‘Do as you (4s, 22w)

XX. 21¶, 74s, 1083w. - averages: 3.5 s/¶; 14.6 w/s; 52 w/¶.
¶ -- Pippin left him (4s, 84w); Out from the (2s, 45w); All was silent, (5s, 145w); A porter sat (4s, 112w); There Pippin, staring (5s, 111w); ‘Here we will (6s, 49w); ‘By your leave, (7s, 60w); At the door (5s, 39w); ‘Who is the (2s, 17w); ‘The Grey Wanderer (2s, 62w); ‘Whither do you (1s, 8w); ‘To find Mithrandir,’ (1s, 5w); ‘The Lord's errands (3s, 52w); ‘Yes,’ said Pippin, (1s, 7w); Beregond bowed his (2s, 21w); ‘No,’ said Pippin, (6s, 49w); ‘Then you must (1s, 8w); ‘I know. The (3s, 21w); ‘The Lord does (1s, 24w); ‘Well, you must (4s, 38w); He ran on, (9s, 126w)

XXI. 8¶, 36s, 559w . - averages: 4.5 s/¶; 15.5 w/s; 70 w/¶.
¶ -- Ever since the (7s, 143w); The drums rolled (6s, 96w); But about the (3s, 70w); Grond crawled on. (2s, 48w); Grond crawled on. (7s, 78w); The drums rolled (6s, 47w); Then the Black (1s, 31w); Thrice he cried. (4s, 46w)

XXII. 5¶, 19s, 204w . - averages: 3.8 s/¶, 10.7 w/s, 41 w/¶.
¶ -- In rode the (3s, 48w); All save one. (2s, 40w); ‘You cannot enter (5s, 32w); The Black Rider (3s, 45w); ‘Old fool!’ he (6s, 39w)

XXIII. 2¶, 8s, 84w. - averages: 4.0 s/¶; 10.5 w/s; 42 w/¶.
¶ -- Gandalf did not (3s, 50w); And as if (5s, 34w)

Where do the paragraphs or sentences get shorter and longer? Why there?


These are the ten longest and shortest paragraphs (abbreviated), as ordered by word-count, greatest to least. The notation “XV.143” indicates the chapter’s 143rd paragraph, found in the fifteenth section:

199w (7s) XV.143 Soon there was
185w (7s) IV.39 Pippin pressed forward
156w (15s) VI.81 Gandalf put his
145w (5s) XX.165 All was silent,
143w (7s) XXI.184 Ever since the
139w (16s) VI.82 Gandalf stood for
139w (7s) XVIII.154 Far behind the
138w (6s) II.18 It was as
137w (6s) XVII.152 So it was
133w (6s) XI.109 It was Gandalf
- - - - - - - -
7w (1s) I.2 ‘What is the
7w (1s) II.11 ‘What would you
7w (1s) V.64 ‘What then is
7w (1s) XX.176 ‘Yes,’ said Pippin,
5w (1s) I.4 ‘And will he;
5w (1s) V.56 ‘So be it,’
5w (1s) VII.95 ‘I do so,’
5w (1s) XI.110 ‘Is Faramir come?’
5w (1s) XX.174 ‘To find Mithrandir,’
3w (1s) VI.83 ‘But,’ said Pippin.

The shortest paragraphs are dialogue. Let’s look at the two longest paragraphs, which are noticeably larger (by about 20%) than any others in this chapter:


Quote
Soon there was great peril of fire behind the wall, and all who could be spared were busy quelling the flames that sprang up in many places. Then among the greater casts there fell another hail, less ruinous but more horrible. All about the streets and lanes behind the Gate it tumbled down, small round shot that did not burn. But when men ran to learn what it might be, they cried aloud or wept. For the enemy was flinging into the City all the heads of those who had fallen fighting at Osgiliath, or on the Rammas, or in the fields. They were grim to look on; for though some were crushed and shapeless, and some had been cruelly hewn, yet many had features that could be told, and it seemed that they had died in pain; and all were branded with the foul token of the Lidless Eye. But marred and dishonoured as they were, it often chanced that thus a man would see again the face of someone that he had known, who had walked proudly once in arms, or tilled the fields, or ridden in upon a holiday from the green vales in the hills.




Quote
Pippin pressed forward as they passed under the lamp beneath the gate-arch, and when he saw the pale face of Faramir he caught his breath. It was the face of one who has been assailed by a great fear or anguish, but has mastered it and now is quiet. Proud and grave he stood for a moment as he spoke to the guard, and Pippin gazing at him saw how closely he resembled his brother Boromir – whom Pippin had liked from the first, admiring the great man’s lordly but kindly manner. Yet suddenly for Faramir his heart was strangely moved with a feeling that he had not known before. Here was one with an air of high nobility such as Aragorn at times revealed, less high perhaps, yet also less incalculable and remote: one of the Kings of Men born into a later time, but touched with the wisdom and sadness of the Elder Race. He knew now why Beregond spoke his name with love. He was a captain that men would follow, that he would follow, even under the shadow of the black wings.



Why are these two paragraphs significantly longer than any others? Do they have anything in common? Are they too long? How could they be shortened?


Ordering the paragraphs by the number of sentences they contain produces a different list. These are the ten longest and shortest paragraphs listed that way:

16s (139w) VI.82 Gandalf stood for
16s (100w) IV.33 ‘Faramir! The Lord
15s (156w) VI.81 Gandalf put his
13s (73w) XIX.157 ‘Why? Why do
12s (61w) IV.31 ‘Black Riders!' muttered
10s (120w) III.25 ‘Yes,’ said Pippin,
10s (102w) XIII.132 But Denethor did
9s (126w) XX.183 He ran on, down,
9s (110w) XIV.137 ‘There is no
9s (72w) VI.86 ‘I cannot answer
- - - - - - - -
1s (7w) I.2 ‘What is the
1s (7w) II.11 ‘What would you
1s (7w) V.64 ‘What then is
1s (7w) XX.176 ‘Yes,’ said Pippin,
1s (5w) I.4 ‘And will he
1s (5w) V.56 ‘So be it,’
1s (5w) VII.95 ‘I do so,’
1s (5w) XI.110 ‘Is Faramir come?’
1s (5w) XX.174 ‘To find Mithrandir,’
1s (3w) VI.83 ‘But,’ said Pippin.

There are another fourteen paragraphs composed of just one sentence; again these short paragraphs are (mostly) dialogue passages. Turning to the paragraphs with the most sentences, note that the two paragraphs with the most words don’t appear in this top ten. Here are the two that contain sixteen sentences:


Quote
Gandalf stood for a moment in thought. ‘Maybe,’ he muttered. ‘Maybe even your foolishness helped, my lad. Let me see: some five days ago now he would discover that we had thrown down Saruman and had taken the Stone. Still what of that? We could not use it to much purpose, or without his knowing. Ah! I wonder. Aragorn? His time draws near. And he is strong and stern underneath, Pippin; bold, determined, able to take his own counsel and dare great risks at need. That may be it. He may have used the Stone and shown himself to the Enemy, challenging him, for this very purpose. I wonder. Well, we shall not know the answer till the Riders of Rohan come, if they do not come too late. There are evil days ahead. To sleep while we may!’




Quote
‘Faramir! The Lord Faramir! It is his call!’ cried Beregond. ‘Brave heart! But how can he win to the Gate, if these foul hell-hawks have other weapons than fear? But look! They hold on. They will make the Gate. No! the horses are running mad. Look! the men are thrown; they are running on foot. No, one is still up, but he rides back to the others. That will be the Captain: he can master both beasts and men. Ah! there one of the foul things is stooping on him. Help! help! Will no one go out to him? Faramir!’



And the one that contains fifteen sentences:


Quote
Gandalf put his hand on Pippin’s head. ‘There never was much hope,’ he answered. ‘Just a fool’s hope, as I have been told. And when I heard of Cirith Ungol–––’ He broke off and strode to the window, as if his eyes could pierce the night in the East. ‘Cirith Ungol!’ he muttered. ‘Why that way, I wonder?’ He turned. ‘Just now, Pippin, my heart almost failed me, hearing that name. And yet in truth I believe that the news that Faramir brings has some hope in it. For it seems clear that our Enemy has opened his war at last and made the first move while Frodo was still free. So now for many days he will have his eye turned this way and that, away from his own land. And yet, Pippin, I feel from afar his haste and fear. He has begun sooner than he would. Something has happened to stir him.’



Two of these paragraphs follow one on the other in the chapter, and all three clearly have something in common. What? Which of these paragraphs makes best and worst use of its many sentences?


Now to sentences. I cannot list them all here, even abbreviated after the style of the paragraphs listed above. The shortest sentence is Gandalf’s command to the Witch-king: “‘Go!’”, and there are several other one word sentences. This is the longest sentence, whether counted by words (83) or characters (363):


Quote
For at the beginning Faramir spoke only of the errand upon which he had been sent out ten days before, and he brought tidings of Ithilien and of movements of the Enemy and his allies; and he told of the fight on the road when the men of Harad and their great beast were overthrown: a captain reporting to his master such matters as had often been heard before, small things of border-war that now seemed useless and petty, shorn of their renown.



Why should this sentence, which explicitly is about unimportant matters, be so long?

The next longest sentence is notably shorter, with 61 words (or 273 characters):


Quote
For the main wall of the City was of great height and marvellous thickness, built ere the power and craft of Númenor waned in exile; and its outward face was like to the Tower of Orthanc, hard and dark and smooth, unconquerable by steel or fire, unbreakable except by some convulsion that would rend the very earth on which it stood.



And the rest of the top ten slowly decline from that length.


Here are the first words of every sentence, arranged in order of use. For the articles “The” and “A”, I have additionally listed the nouns they introduce:

The (66); And (57); But (54); He (49); It (31); I (28); Then (20); They (20); For (18); At (15); There (14); You (14); Pippin (12); Go (11); In (11); No (11); Gandalf (10); Now (10); Yet (9); Do (8); Faramir (8); Nay (8); So (8); A (7); All (7); That (7); What (7); Yes (7); As (6); If (6); Let (6); To (6); Farewell (5); His (5); Men (5); Not (5); We (5); Why (5); drums, The (4); Here (4); Or (4); Out (4); Slowly (4); Well (4); With (4); Your (4); Ah (3); Denethor (3); Ever (3); Great (3); Grond (3); How (3); Indeed (3); Lord, The (3); Nazgûl, The (3); On (3); Presently (3); Rohan (3); When (3); Will (3); Would (3); Alas (2); Already (2); Amroth (2); Another (2); Black Riders (2); Bring (2); cavalry, The (2); Cirith Ungol (2); Comfort (2); Far (2); Few (2); Fires (2); From (2); Have (2); Ill (2); Is (2); Just (2); Maybe (2); More (2); next, The (2); Old (2); Only (2); Perhaps (2); Poor (2); retreat, The (2); Rohirrim, The (2); See (2); Send (2); Some (2); Soon (2); This (2); Though (2); Thrice (2); Time (2); time, The (2); Upon (2); Whence (2); Where (2); Whither (2); About; Above; Again; air, The; Aragorn; Ashamed; Away; Before; Behind; bells, The; Beregond; Better; Beyond; Black Rider, The; Brave; Busy; By; Cair Andros; Can; Candles; Come; Counsels; Curses; Dark; deep, A; Die; dike, The; Drawn; During; Early; Enemy, The; enemy, The; Enough; esquire, The; Even; face, The; Faint; Fall; Fen Hollen; field, The; first, The; Follow; Food; fool's, The; Forcing; Fugitives; Gate, The; Gollum; Good; great, A; Grey Wanderer, The; Grief; Guessing; Had; halfling, A; hauberk, The; Help; Horns; Horsemen; hosts, The; house, The; Houses; However; Hunger; Hunters; isle, The; King of Angmar; Last; last, The; Like; lines, The; Long; Look; Lord Denethor, The; Lord Faramir, The; Lord of the City, The; Lord's, The; man, A; May; Mean; Meanwhile ; men, The; Messengers; messengers, The; Morgul Vale; morning, The; Most; mounted, The; Much; My; Neither; new, The; Nonetheless; number, The; Oh; Once; One; out-companies, The; Outside; Over; passage, The; Past; Pelennor, The; Pippin’s; plain, The; plan, The; porter, A; power, A; Prince, The; Proud; Quickly; Quite; Rammas, The; red, The; Reluctantly; Removed; rest, The; Return; roads, The; Say; sentinel, The; Shot; Shrill; Since; Small; Softly; Something; sortie, A; Still; Stir; Such; Suddenly; Take; Tell; Their; Thus; Tirelessly; Today; Together; Tomorrow's; Treachery; Turning; vanguard, The; Very; very, The; watchers, The; watchmen, The; Were; West, The; Wherever; White; Who; winged, The; Yestereve

I’m not sure if that list is of any use, but having done the rest, it was relatively easy to create. What other kinds of word-sorting would be useful for understanding this chapter?

And why not – here are the last words of every sentence:

said (20); Denethor (18); Gandalf (17); Faramir (15); it (13); him (10); me (9); us (8); Pippin (7); cried (6); on (6); before (5); come (5); dead (5); death (5); Gate (5); hand (5); up (5); yet (5); again (4); despair (4); down (4); end (4); failed (4); them (4); Tower (4); wall (4); walls (4); you (4); answered (3); back (3); Beregond (3); City (3); dark (3); deem (3); East (3); fallen (3); farewell (3); father (3); fear (3); fields (3); ground (3); head (3); live (3); long (3); men (3); night (3); Osgiliath (3); others (3); out (3); places (3); retreat (3); seen (3); sighed (3); there (3); thought (3); well (3); wonder (3); ago (2); air (2); away (2); be (2); Boromir (2); breath (2); burn (2); came (2); citadel (2); coming (2); command (2); could (2); counsel (2); deeds (2); duties (2); Enemy (2); eyes (2); far (2); foes (2); foot (2); free (2); gift (2); go (2); gone (2); halted (2); heard (2); heart (2); here (2); hour (2); indeed (2); keeping (2); late (2); lay (2); look (2); lord (2); may (2); Mithrandir (2); murmured (2); muttered (2); near (2); note (2); onslaught (2); passage (2); peace (2); Prince (2); pyre (2); ready (2); red (2); return (2); River (2); Rohan (2); rout (2); seems (2); shadow (2); shut (2); silent (2); silver (2); softly (2); son (2); still (2); stone (2); stood (2); streets (2); stroke (2); tears (2); that (2); think (2); told (2); tonight (2); vain (2); wept (2); while (2); wrath (2); yesterday (2); yourself (2); abroad; across; afraid; ahead; amazed; anguish; animal; Anórien; answer; anxious; Aragorn; arms; ash; ask; asked; asleep; avoid; axes; bare; battle; bay; beast; beetles; began; below; bidding; bitterly; black; Black Gate; blade; blowing; boasted; boats; bonfire; boom; boomed; bowed; brand; breaches; breakfast; broke; broken; brown; burden; burning; by; calling; can; carrion-birds; Causeway; Causeway Forts; chains; chair; chamber; choosing; circle; circlet; Cirith Ungol; Citadel; city; City Gate; City of Gondor; clad; clouds; cold; comes; commands; company; course; creature; cries; crowed; crumbles; cry; cut; dangerous; darkest; Darkness; dart; dawn; day; deep; deeply; defence; defended; depart; devices; dismay; dismayed; distant; done; doors; dotard; drear; dregs; duty; earth; east; East Osgiliath; eastward; eat; echoed; Edoras; effort; Elder Race; embalmed; embalmers; encouragement; engines; evil; exchange; exchanged; face; fall; feared; fenced; few; field; find; fire; five; fled; flesh; floor; foe; folk; fool; fools; force; forward; Frodo; gale; gate; gave; gentle; gloom; great; Great River; Grey Wanderer; had; Halfling; hands; happening; he; heed; held; help; hills; himself; honour; hope; hoped; horns; horrible; horror; horsemen; hosed; house; hunger; hunted; I; ill; in; intend; Ithilien; journey; kill; king; kneeling; know; knowing; labour; lad; laid; land; lantern-beam; last; laughter; leave; left; leisure; Lidless Eye; life; liking; lips; lives; lodging; loosed; Lord Faramir; lost; louder; love; loved; mad; madmen; madness; mail; man; manner; Master; mean; memory; messenger; milk; Minas Tirith; missiles; Mordor; more; morning; move; much; must; name; Nazgûl; need; needless; neither; nephew; newcomer; news; noon; north-east; not; now; occasion; old; once; one; oppressed; order; out-companies; outnumbered; overmatched; overthrown; Paladin; parted; passed; people; Peregrin; peril; perilous; persons; plain; points; pool; present; presentable; pupil; purpose; pursued; pursuers; quiet; rain; Rath Dínen; rattled; rearguard; reduced; re-formed; remains; remorse; renown; riddles; rolled; rose; round; ruinous; run; sadly; sang; sank; say; seat; servants; service; set; shoulders; shout; sight; Silent Street; silently; sing; sire; slaves; slow; smoke; so; sometimes; sons; son's; sortie; Southlands; spared; speed; spirits; spoke; spoken; stammered; stay; sterner; Steward; Stewards; Stone; stones; storm; strength; suddenly; summoned; summons; supportable; surely; swiftly; sword; swung; taken; tall; terror; thankless; these; things; this; through; thunder; tidings; time; timid; together; tomb; torch; torches; Tower Hall; Tower of Guard; Tree; true; turned; uncomfortable; undisturbed; Ungol; unheeded; unmanned; upwards; urgent; Uruk-hai; valley; veins; venture; voice; wains; wait; waiting; war; way; weapons; weary; weight; West; whence; White Rider; why; wildly; will; wings; wisdom; wish; Withered Tree.; won; wood; work; world; would; wrong; yawning; years

What I immediately notice is that the sentences’ last words are more varied than their first words. Is this just a function of writing in English, or is Tolkien monotonous in starting his sentences?


Finally (you knew it was coming!) here is a list of all the words in this chapter, arranged alphabetically and showing frequency. Names like “Morgul Vale” are treated as one word. So treated, this chapter has 11,544 words. Accounting for repetition, there are 2,080 different words used. The list:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
a (178); abandon (1); abandoned (1); abide (1); able (1); about (14); above (8); abroad (2); abyss (1); according (1); accursed (2); accused (1); across (9); admiring (1); admitted (1); afar (1); afford (1); afield (1); afraid (1); after (2); again (25); against (4); age (1); ago (8); ah (3); ahead (1); air (9); airs (1); alas (3); alike (1); all (53); alliance (1); allies (1); allow (1); almost (4); alone (3); aloud (4); already (11); also (4); always (2); am (2); amazed (1); amid (2); among (4); amount (1); Amroth (2); an (13); ancient (2); and (477); Andros (1); Anduin (1); anguish (2); animal (1); anon (2); Anórien (2); another (5); answer (7); answered (7); answering (1); ants (1); anxious (1); any (12); anything (1); appear (1); appeared (1); approached (1); approaching (2); apt (1); Aragorn (2); archers (1); archway (1); are (37); argument (1); armouries (1); arms (6); army (1); arose (1); array (1); arrayed (1); arrow (1); art (3); as (92); ash (1); ashamed (1); aside (3); ask (3); asked (2); asking (2); asleep (1); assail (1); assailed (1); assault (5); astonished (1); asunder (1); at (87); attend (1); avail (1); availed (1); avoid (1); awaits (3); aware (2); away (21); axes (1)

back (17); bad (1); bade (2); balusters (1); bands (1); bank (1); banner (2); banners (1); bare (1); barer (1); barges (1); barns (1); bastions (1); battalions (1); battle (4); battlement (2); bay (3); be (55); bear (2); bearded (1); bearing (5); beast (3); beasts (4); beaten (1); became (6); because (4); beckoned (1); become (1); bed (5); been (20); beetles (1); befell (1); befit (1); before (31); began (4); begged (1); beginning (1); begun (1); behind (11); behold (2); being (2); beleaguered (1); believe (1); belike (1); bells (1); below (6); bending (1); beneath (6); bent (1); Beregond (16); beside (9); besieged (1); best (4); betide (1); betray (1); better (3); between (7); beyond (7); bid (1); bidding (1); bird (1); birdlike (1); bitterly (1); bitterness (2); black (11); Black Captain (3); Black Gate (2); Black Land (1); Black Rider (1); Black Riders (2); blackness (2); blade (1); blades (1); blasting (2); blazed (1); blood (1); blow (1); blowing (1); blue (1); board (1); boasted (1); boats (1); bodies (2); body (2); bold (1); bonfire (1); boom (2); boomed (1); border-war (1); bore (5); born (1); borne (1); Boromir (9); both (2); bow (3); bowed (3); bowmen (1); bowshot (2); branches (1); brand (1); branded (1); brave (1); brazier (1); breached (1); breaches (2); bread (1); breadth (1); breakfast (1); breaking (1); breast (1); breath (2); breathless (1); bridged (1); brief (2); brigand (1); bring (3); brings (1); broad (3); broidered (1); broil (1); broke (4); broken (2); brother (2); brought (11); brown (3); building (1); built (2); bunched (1); burden (2); burdensome (1); buried (1); burn (7); burning (6); burnings (1); burst (2); busy (3); but (95); butter (1); by (34)

Cair Andros (5); call (1); called (3); calling (1); came (37); camps (1); can (18); candles (1); cannot (6); Captain (4); captain (6); Captain of Despair (1); captains (2); cared (1); career (1); carrion-birds (1); carrion-fowl (1); carry (2); carved (1); carven (2); case (1); cast (4); casting (1); casts (1); catapults (1); catch (1); catching (1); caught (2); cause (1); Causeway (1); Causeway Forts (2); cavalry (2); centre (1); certainly (1); chains (1); chair (5); challenge (1); challenging (1); chamber (11); champion (1); chanced (2); change (1); charcoal (1); charge (1); charged (1); checked (1); cheer (2); cheering (1); chief (1); chiefly (1); choked (1); choose (1); choosing (1); circle (4); circled (2); circles (1); circlet (1); Cirith Ungol (5); Citadel (8); citadel (3); city (7); City (21); City Gate (1); City of Gondor (1); City-gate (1); clad (4); clamour (2); clear (3); clearly (1); climbed (1); climbing (1); cloak (4); cloaked (1); close (1); closed (3); Closed Door (1); closely (1); clothes (1); cloud (3); clouds (1); clutched (1); clutches (1); cock (1); cold (4); come (39); comes (2); comfort (2); comic (1); coming (5); command (5); commanded (2); commands (1); companies (4); company (6); completed (1); converging (2); convulsion (1); corner (1); corridor (1); could (26); council (2); Council (2); counsel (5); counsels (2); counted (1); countless (1); courage (2); course (1); courtyard (2); cover (1); covered (1); covering (1); coverlets (1); cowered (1); cowering (1); craft (1); crashed (1); crawled (3); crawling (1); creaking (1); creature (1); creeping (1); crept (1); cried (17); cries (1); crossing (3); Cross-roads (1); crowed (2); crown (1); cruel (2); cruelly (2); crumbles (1); crushed (1); cry (7); crying (4); cup (2); curse (1); curses (1); curves (1); cut (1)

damage (1); danger (1); dangerous (1); dare (1); dark (18); Dark Lord (2); Dark Tower (1); darken (1); darkest (1); darkling (1); Darkness (1); darkness (6); dart (3); dawn (2); day (14); days (9); dead (9); deadly (4); deal (1); dear (1); dearly (2); death (10); Death (1); deathlike (1); deathly (1); debated (1); deceive (1); deeds (3); deem (4); deep (6); deepened (1); deeper (1); deeply (1); defeats (1); defence (4); defences (1); defended (1); defender (1); defy (1); delighting (1); Denethor (46); Denethor’s (1); denied (1); depart (1); depends (1); descended (2); desire (1); despair (4); despairs (1); desperate (3); determined (2); device (1); devices (1); devilry (1); devious (1); devouring (1); did (23); die (1); died (2); digging (2); dike (1); dim (9); dimly (2); din (1); disappointed (1); discern (1); discover (1); dishonoured (1); dismay (2); dismayed (1); dismissed (1); dismounted (1); displeases (1); distant (2); do (34); does (5); Dol Amroth (4); doled (1); domes (1); done (7); doom (3); doomed (1); door (8); doors (3); dotard (1); doth (1); doubt (2); down (24); dragging (1); draped (1); draught (1); drawing (3); drawn (1); draws (1); dread (4); dreadful (4); drear (1); dregs (1); drew (4); drink (3); dripping (1); driven (2); drives (1); driving (1); drooped (1); drums (4); drunk (1); due (1); dull (2); dumb (1); during (1); dusk (1); dusky (1); duties (3); duty (4); dwarves (1); dwelt (1); dying (5)

each (5); eagerly (1); eagles (1); early (1); earn (1); earnest (1); ears (2); earth (4); easily (1); East (4); east (2); East Osgiliath (1); eastward (4); eat (1); eaten (1); echo (1); echoed (2); echoes (1); echoing (1); Edoras (1); effort (1); either (5); Elder Race (1); eleventh (1); elsewhere (1); Elvish (1); embalmed (1); embalmers (1); embrasure (1); empty (1); enclosed (1); encouragement (1); end (5); ending (2); endure (1); endured (1); enemies (1); Enemy (12); enemy (10); engines (4); enough (5); enter (4); entered (2); entering (1); entrance (1); Éomer (1); ere (6); Ernil i Pheriannath (1); errand (3); errands (2); escape (1); escort (1); esquire (1); even (23); evening (2); events (1); ever (16); evil (5); except (1); exchange (1); exchanged (1); exclamation (1); exile (1); expect (1); eye (4); Eye (1); eyes (11)

face (10); faced (1); faces (1); facing (1); faded (1); fading (1); failed (5); faint (2); fair (1); faithful (1); fall (4); fallen (8); falling (1); falls (1); far (17); Faramir (60); Faramir’s (3); farewell (8); far-sighted (1); fashion (1); fast (1); father (11); father’s (3); fear (15); feared (1); fearing (3); fears (2); features (1); fed (1); feel (3); feeling (2); feet (3); fell (9); felt (4); Fen Hollen (1); fenced (1); fever (1); fevered (2); few (7); fey (1); field (5); fields (7); fierce (1); fifteen (1); fight (2); fighting (1); file (2); fill (1); filled (3); final (1); find (6); fire (12); fires (9); first (14); fists (1); fit (2); fitful (1); five (5); fixed (1); flame (2); flames (3); flank (1); flash (3); flashed (2); fled (4); flesh (1); flew (1); flickered (2); flickering (1); flickers (1); flies (1); flight (1); fling (1); flinging (2); floats (1); floor (1); flowing (2); flung (2); fly (1); flying (5); foe (5); foes (2); folded (2); folk (5); follies (1); follow (6); followed (2); following (1); folly (1); food (4); fool (3); fool’s (3); foolishness (1); fools (2); foot (2); for (95); force (4); forces (1); forcing (1); fords (3); foreboding (2); foremost (1); forest-tree (1); forged (1); forget (2); forgetting (1); forging (1); forgotten (2); form (1); formed (1); forms (1); forth (6); fortune (1); forward (8); foul (4); found (7); founded (1); four (3); fragments (1); free (3); freely (1); friend (1); Frodo (6); from (71); frozen (1); fruitless (1); fugitives (1); full (1); fume (1); funeral (2); fungus-growth (1); furlongs (1)

gale (1); gallop (1); galloped (2); Gandalf (54); Gandalf’s (2); garments (1); garrison (4); gate (4); Gate (16); Gate of Gondor (1); gate-arch (1); gave (7); gazed (2); gazing (1); gear (2); generous (1); gentle (1); gentleness (1); get (4); gift (2); girt (1); give (1); given (4); glance (1); glances (1); gleam (2); gleamed (1); glimmer (1); gloom (8); glooms (1); glowed (1); go (23); goes (1); going (1); Gollum (2); Gondor (8); gone (7); good (6); got (2); govern (2); gracious (1); grasp (1); grass (1); grave (1); graven (1); great (44); Great River (1); greater (2); greatest (2); great-hilted (1); greatly (2); green (2); grew (6); grey (4); Grey Fool (1); Grey Wanderer (2); grief (1); grievously (1); grim (3); gripped (1); Grond (4); grooms (1); ground (5); grow (1); grown (2); grows (1); Guard (1); guard (4); guarded (2); Guard-towers (1); guessed (4); guessing (1); guided (1); gust (1)

had (82); hail (1); hailed (1); half (1); half-forgotten (1); hafling (3); Halflings (1); Hall (1); halls (3); halt (1); halted (4); Hammer of the Underworld (1); hand (11); handful (1); hands (7); happened (1); happening (1); Harad (3); Haradrim (1); hard (3); hardiest (1); hardihood (1); hardly (1); harsh (2); has (35); haste (4); hatred (1); hauberk (2); hauled (1); have (67); hazard (1); he (241); head (12); heads (2); healed (1); hear (2); heard (13); hearing (2); heart (11); hearts (6); heathen (1); heavier (1); heaviest (1); heavy (5); heed (2); heeded (1); heeding (1); heels (1); height (1); held (6); hell-hawks (1); helm (2); help (3); helped (1); Henneth Annûn (1); herded (1); here (18); hewed (1); hewing (1); hewn (1); hidden (6); hide (1); hideous (2); hiding (1); high (10); high-crowned (1); hills (3); him (45); himself (13); hinder (1); hindered (1); his (134); hither (3); hobbit (2); hobbit-like (1); hold (5); holding (1); holiday (1); honour (2); hood (1); hooded (1); hoofs (1); hope (15); hoped (1); horns (4); horrible (2); horror (2); horse (2); horsed (1); horseman (2); horsemen (5); horses (4); host (5); hosts (3); hounded (1); hour (7); hours (4); house (3); House of the Stewards (2); household (1); houses (3); housing (1); how (8); however (2); huge (5); hundred (1); hunger (2); hungry (1); hunted (2); hunters (3); hurled (1); hurried (2); hurrying (2); hurt (1)

I (116); I’m (1); idea (1); idleness (1); if (44); ifs (1); ill (4); ill-boding (1); image (1); images (1); impenetrable (1); imprisoned (1); in (175); inadequate (1); incalculable (1); indeed (8); indomitable (2); indoors (1); Ingold (1); innumerable (1); intend (1); intent (1); into (23); iron (2); is (77); isle (2); issue (1); issued (1); it (142); Ithilien (4); its (9)

jet (1); joined (2); journey (1); judged (1); judgement (3); just (7)

keep (5); keeping (3); kept (5); key (1); kicked (1); kill (1); kindled (1); kindly (1); king (2); King of Angmar (1); king’s (1); kingly (1); kings (1); Kings (1); Kings of Men (2); kinsman (1); kneeling (1); knees (1); knew (7); knights (3); know (8); knowing (1); known (9); knows (1)

labour (2); lad (1); laid (2); lamp (1); land (7); lanes (2); lantern (3); lantern-beam (1); large (1); last (22); late (3); later (1); laugh (1); laughed (2); laughter (1); lay (10); Lay of Nimrodel (1); leading (1); leads (1); leagues (4); leaned (1); leaped (2); learn (4); learned (1); least (2); leave (8); leaving (1); Lebennin (1); led (2); left (14); legends (1); leisure (1); length (8); less (11); lest (2); let (9); letting (1); Lidless Eye (1); lies (2); life (3); lift (1); lifted (2); lifting (1); light (8); light-hearted (1); lightly (1); lightning (1); like (23); liked (1); likely (2); likeness (1); liking (1); line (4); lines (4); lips (1); listen (3); listening (1); lit (2); little (13); live (4); lived (3); livery (3); lives (2); living (1); loaf (1); lodging (1); lofty (1); long (27); longer (4); look (6); looked (18); looking (3); loomed (1); looming (2); loosed (1); lord (9); Lord (8); Lord Denethor (2); Lord Faramir (4); Lord of Barad-dûr (1); Lord of Minas Tirith (1); Lord of Mordor’s (1); Lord of the City (10); Lord of the Dark Tower (1); Lord of the Nazgûl (3); Lord’s (3); lord’s (1); lordly (2); lords (2); lore (1); Lórien (1); lose (2); loss (2); lost (2); louder (1); love (1); loved (2); loves (1); low (4); lowering (1); lowly (1); loyal (1); lurking (1)

mad (2); made (5); madman (1); madmen (1); madness (3); mail (3); main (2); make (8); malice (3); man (11); man’s (1); manned (1); manner (3); mansions (1); mantled (1); many (26); many-pillared (1); marble (1); marching (3); Marish (1); mark (1); marred (1); marshes (1); marvelled (1); marvellous (1); marvellously (1); mass (1); master (7); Master (1); Master Beregond (1); Master Halfling (2); Master Peregrin (3); master’s (1); mastered (1); mastering (1); match (1); matter (1); matters (3); may (22); maybe (7); me (31); mean (3); meanwhile (1); medicine (1); meet (2); meeting (1); memory (3); men (50); Men (1); men’s (2); menace (2); men’s (1); messenger (2); messengers (2); messes (1); met (2); middle (4); midst (1); might (10); mighty (2); mile (1); miles (1); milk (1); Minas Morgul (1); Minas Tirith (4); mind (3); Mindolluin (2); Mindolluin’s (2); minds (1); mine (1); mirk (1); mischief (1); miserable (1); missiles (2); Mithrandir (7); mixed (1); mockery (1); moment (8); mood (2); Mordor (2); more (30); Morgul (2); Morgul Vale (1); Morgulduin (1); morning (8); most (7); mostly (1); Mountain of Fire (1); mountain-trolls (1); mounted (4); mourners (1); mouth (1); move (2); moved (3); movements (1); moving (2); much (10); multiplied (1); mûmakil (1); murmured (2); must (18); muttered (3); my (37); myself (4)

name (2); named (1); Nameless One (1); names (1); narrow (2); nay (9); Nazgûl (5); near (6); need (5); needed (3); needless (2); needs (2); neither (2); nephew (1); nerveless (1); never (1); new (6); newcomer (1); newcomers (1); news (7); next (2); nick (1); nigh (2); night (12); nightfall (1); nights (1); Nimrodel (1); no (42); nobility (1); nodded (1); noise (1); none (2); nonetheless (1); noon (1); noon-meal (1); nor (2); North (3); north (5); north-east (1); northern (1); northward (4); not (104); note (2); nothing (5); nothingness (1); noticed (1); now (65); number (1); numbers (1); Númenor (2)

occasion (2); of (328); off (4); often (4); oh (1); oil (1); old (14); on (80); once (14); oncoming (1); one (25); ones (1); onlooker (1); only (16); onset (2); onslaught (1); open (1); opened (1); opening (1); oppose (1); oppressed (1); or (45); orc-chieftain (1); Orcs (2); orcs (4); ordeal (1); order (2); ordered (2); orders (2); Osgiliath (8); other (13); others (13); our (12); out (36); out-companies (3); outer (6); out-garrison (1); outnumbered (1); outran (1); outside (4); outward (1); over (11); over-counted (1); overhanging (1); overmatched (1); overtaking (1); overthrown (3); own (11)

paced (3); paid (2); pain (1); Paladin (1); pale (6); pall (1); panting (1); part (5); parted (2); parting (1); pass (1); passage (4); passed (18); passing (1); past (2); pat (1); path (1); paths (1); patient (1); pause (1); pay (2); peace (2); peered (1); Pelennor (10); People (6); perceive (1); perceiving (1); perchance (1); Peregrin (1); perhaps (5); peril (3); perilous (2); perils (1); permit (2); permitted (1); persons (1); petty (1); pierce (2); piercing (2); pillowed (1); Pippin (64); Pippin’s (3); pitiless (1); pitted (1); pity (1); place (8); places (6); plain (3); plains (1); plan (1); planned (1); play (1); pleased (1); point (1); points (1); points (1); poison (1); poisonous (1); policies (1); pool (1); poor (2); poorly (1); porter (2); position (1); post (1); posts (2); pour (1); poured (1); pouring (1); power (5); praise (1); precipice (1); prepared (1); preparing (1); presence (1); present (2); presentable (1); presently (3); press (2); pressed (3); prevailed (1); prevented (1); prey (1); Prince (4); Prince Imrahil (1); Prince of Dol Amroth (1); Prince of the Halflings (1); private (1); profit (1); protect (1); proud (3); proudly (3); provide (1); provided (2); pupil (1); purpose (3); pursued (1); pursuers (1); put (6); pyre (2)

quail (1); quailed (1); quelling (1); questions (1); quick (1); quickened (1); quickly (2); quiet (2); quietly (1); quite (2)

race (4); raged (1); rain (1); raised (1); rallying (1); ram (2); Rammas (4); ran (6); rang (2); range (1); rashly (1); Rath Dínen (2); rather (2); rattled (1); ravening (1); raven-wings (1); reach (2); reached (5); read (1); ready (2); rear (2); rearguard (2); rearward (1); received (1); recking (1); reckless (1); recognized (1); recover (1); red (8); Red Arrow (1); reduced (1); reek (1); re-formed (1); refresh (1); refused (1); regiments (1); relaxed (1); release (1); released (4); relish (1); reluctantly (1); remained (3); remains (1); remember (5); remembered (1); remnant (2); remorse (1); remote (2); removed (1); rend (2); renown (1); rent (1); repaid (1); reporting (1); rescue (1); resembled (1); resistance (1); resolve (1); resolved (1); rest (5); restraint (1); retreat (10); retreating (1); return (7); returned (4); revealed (1); ridden (3); riddles (1); rider (1); Riders of Rohan (3); rides (1); riding (2); right (1); ring (2); ringed (1); rings (1); Ringwraith (1); rising (1); risked (1); risking (1); risks (1); riven (1); River (9); rivers (1); road (7); roads (1); roamed (1); robbed (1); rode (9); Rohan (6); Rohirrim (4); rolled (5); room (2); roots (1); rope (1); rose (5); round (2); roused (1); rout (2); rows (1); rue (1); ruefully (1); ruin (3); ruined (1); ruinous (3); rule (1); rules (1); rumbled (1); rumbles (1); rumour (3); run (2); rung (1); runner (1); running (5); rush (1); rustic (1)

sadly (2); sadness (1); said (96); sailed (1); same (2); sang (1); sank (3); Saruman (1); sat (12); Sauron (1); savage (1); save (8); saved (2); saw (11); say (7); saying (3); scarce (1); scarcely (3); scattering (1); screech (1); screeched (1); screen (1); Sea (1); search (1); searing (1); seat (3); seats (1); second (2); Second Gate (1); secret (3); see (16); seeing (1); seeking (1); seem (2); seemed (14); seemingly (1); seems (4); seen (9); sees (1); seldom (1); send (5); sends (1); sent (6); sentinel (3); servant (2); servants (4); service (4); set (9); setting (1); Shadow (2); shadow (11); Shadowfax (4); Shadows (1); shadows (10); shaft (1); shake (1); shall (8); shape (2); shaped (1); shapeless (1); sheath (1); shining (3); ship (1); Shire (2); shock (1); shone (1); shook (3); shorn (1); short (2); shot (4); should (12); shoulders (2); shout (2); shouted (1); shouted (1); shouting (1); shouts (1); show (1); showed (1); shown (1); shrank (1); shrill (1); shrouded (1); shrugged (1); shuddering (2); shut (3); side (9); sides (2); siege (1); siege-towers (2); sighed (4); sight (3); sign (2); signal (1); silent (6); Silent Street (2); silently (2); silver (6); since (8); sing (4); singing (1); sir (2); sire (1); sit (1); sits (1); six (1); sixth (1); skilfully (1); skill (1); sky (2); slain (3); slaves (2); slay (1); sleep (3); sleeping (1); sleepless (1); slept (1); slow (4); slowly (10); small (11); smithies (1); smoke (1); smooth (1); smote (1); smouldering (1); snapped (1); so (31); soft (1); softly (4); soldier (1); sombre (2); some (28); somehow (1); someone (2); something (5); sometimes (1); son (10); son’s (1); song (1); songs (4); sons (1); soon (12); sooner (2); soonest (1); Sorcerer (1); sore (1); sort (1); sortie (3); sound (1); sounding (1); south (5); South (2); southland (1); Southlands (1); Southron (1); southwards (1); space (1); spaces (1); spare (1); spared (4); sparks (1); speak (7); speaking (2); spear (1); sped (1); speed (2); spell (1); spells (1); spending (1); spent (1); spider (1); spirals (1); spirit (1); spirits (1); spoke (9); spoken (4); spoken (3); sprang (4); spread (2); spring (1); sprouted (1); sputtering (1); squandered (1); stabbed (1); staff (1); stammered (1); stamping (1); stand (6); standing (2); star (2); stared (1); staring (2); starless (1); starting (2); staves (1); stay (5); stead (1); steadfast (1); steadily (2); steel (5); stepped (1); stepping (2); stern (2); sterner (1); Steward (2); Stewards (1); stiffened (1); stifled (1); still (29); stir (2); stirrups (1); stole (1); Stone (2); stone (3); stones (1); stood (14); stooping (2); stop (1); stopped (2); storm (1); story (1); stout (2); stout-hearted (2); straight (1); strain (2); strange (4); strangely (2); strayed (1); streamed (1); streets (4); strength (6); strengthen (2); stretched (2); strewn (1); stricken (5); strike (1); strode (2); stroke (4); strolled (1); strong (7); stung (1); subtleties (1); such (11); sudden (1); suddenly (11); summit (1); summoned (2); summons (1); Sun (1); sun (1); sunless (1); sunset-hour (1); supportable (1); suppose (1); surcoat (1); surely (3); surging (1); surrounded (1); swan-knights (1); swarmed (2); swayed (1); swaying (2); swept (2); swerved (2); swift (2); swifter (1); swiftest (1); swiftly (6); swinging (1); swirling (1); swoop (1); swooped (1); swooping (1); sword (3); swords (1); swung (2)

table (2); tables (1); take (5); taken (6); taking (4); tale (1); tales (1); talk (1); talked (2); tall (3); tarry (1); task (1); tasted (1); tearless (1); tears (3); tell (3); ten (3); tended (1); tents (1); terrible (1); terror (6); test (2); than (23); thankless (1); that (169); the (777); their (43); them (26); themselves (3); then (35); thence (2); Théoden (1); there (56); these (2); they (114); thick (3); thickness (1); thin (1); thing (10); things (9); think (10); third (2); this (31); thither (1); those (6); though (13); thought (12); thoughts (1); threat (1); three (2); threw (2); thrice (2); thrill (1); through (16); throw (3); thrown (2); thrust (2); thudding (1); thunder (4); thus (3); tidings (3); till (3); tilled (1); time (15); times (5); timid (1); tired (2); tirelessly (1); to (206); today (2); together (3); token (3); told (8); tomb (2); tombs (1); tomorrow’s (1); tongue (2); tongues (2); tonight (2); too (12); took (5); toppling (1); torch (2); torches (4); torrents (1); touched (2); touching (1); towards (8); Tower (5); tower (1); Tower Hall (1); Tower of Guard (1); Tower of Orthanc (1); towers (2); townlands (1); traitor (1); trampling (1); travellers (2); treachery (3); Tree (1); tree (1); trembled (3); trembling (1); trench (2); trenches (3); trial (3); triumph (1); trouble (2); troubled (2); true (2); trumpet (3); trust (4); truth (2); tumbled (2); tumult (1); turned (17); turning (1); turns (1); twenty-five (1); twilight (2); two (7)

unable (1); unawares (1); unbearable (2); unblessed (1); unbreakable (1); unchecked (1); uncomfortable (3); under (15); underneath (1); understood (1); undisturbed (1); uneasily (1); unfit (1); unfolded (1); unfought (1); unheeded (1); unless (2); unlightened (1); unlit (1); unlocked (1); unmanned (1); unmoving (1); unsaid (1); unseen (1); unthanked (1); until (6); untimely (1); untroubled (1); unveiled (1); up (31); upon (35); upraised (1); upwards (1); urgent (2); urging (1); Uruk-hai (1); us (19); use (3); used (4); useless (1); uses (1); utter (1); uttered (1); uttermost (1)

vain (3); vale (1); Vale of Anduin (2); vales (1); valley (1); valour (2); vanguard (1); vanished (1); vanishing (1); vast (3); vaulted (1); vaults (1); veiled (1); veins (2); venture (1); venturing (1); verily (1); very (10); victory (1); view (1); vigil (1); visible (1); voice (7); voices (3); vultures (1)

wailing (1); wains (2); wait (6); waited (2); waiting (5); walked (6); walking (2); wall (13); walls (23); wanderer (1); wandering (1); waned (1); want (1); war (11); warm (1); was (128); waste (1); watch (1); watched (4); watchers (2); watchmen (2); water (1); waved (1); wavered (1); waxes (1); way (12); we (29); weak (1); weakest (1); weapon (2); weapons (4); wear (2); weariness (1); weary (5); weather (1); webs (1); weep (1); weeping (1); weigh (1); weighed (2); weight (2); weighty (1); welcoming (1); well (15); went (15); wept (2); were (50); West (3); western (1); westward (3); what (30); whatever (1); wheel (1); wheeled (1); wheeling (1); when (24); whence (2); where (14); wherever (1); whether (1); which (6); while (23); whiles (1); whispered (1); white (6); White Rider (3); White Tower (5); whither (2); who (24); whom (7); whose (1); why (9); wide (4); wield (2); wielding (1); wild (3); wildly (4); will (56); willing (1); wills (1); win (1); winch (1); wind (4); winding (5); window (1); windows (3); wine (2); winged (3); wings (1); wins (2); wisdom (5); wise (2); Wise (1); wish (6); with (81); withdrawn (1); withered (1); Withered Tree (1); within (5); without (3); withstood (1); witless (2); wizard’s (1); wizardry (1); wizards (2); wolf (1); won (2); wonder (4); wondered (1); wont (2); wood (3); word (3); words (5); work (1); world (2); worse (2); worst (1); would (50); wounded (3); wrath (3); wreck (2); wrong (1); wrought (2)

yawned (1); yawning (1); years (4); yells (1); yes (8); yesterday (3); yestereve (2); yet (45); yield (1); you (97); your (42); yourself (5)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

These are the twenty most common words in the chapter: the (777); and (477); of (328); he (241); to (206); a (178); in (175); that (169); it (142); his (134); was (128); I (116); they (114); not (104); you (97); said (96); but (95); for (95); as (92); at (87). Nothing unusual as far as I can tell. As you can see, more than half the words in the chapter appear only once. Do any of them seem particularly unusual to you?

Any further thoughts you have on these words would be welcome. At first glance, I thought the number of words beginning with “un” was high, but checking some other chapters, that seems not to be the case. I haven’t got much else to offer. Word length? Not counting multiple-word names (e.g., “Hammer of the Underworld”) or hyphenated words (“mountain-trolls”), the longest words in this chapter are “uncomfortable”, “encouragement”, “disappointed”, “impenetrable”, “incalculable”, and “marvellously”.

Thanks for bearing with me as I got that out of my system. The rest of the week will consist of more ordinary questions about the story.

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 22-28 for "The Siege of Gondor".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


visualweasel
Rohan


Sep 22 2008, 3:03pm

Post #2 of 20 (1713 views)
Shortcut
I really don't know what to do with all of that! :-P [In reply to] Can't Post

N.E. Brigand, not to make light of the enormous, almost jaw-dropping amount of work you've put into this (as you always do), but I seriously doubt that most people read at this level. Even I don't, word-nerd that I am. And even where the distribution of words, the length of sections and paragraphs, and the varying density of the prose may have unconscious effects on the reader, I suspect that trying to codify those effects to the extent you have may tend to drown, bury, or otherwise destroy them. Sort of like pulling the curtain back on the Wizard of Oz, as it were. (Not that I'm seeking to discourage you.) I'm not sure whether Tolkien would even have been aware of the structure of his prose at this level. I think it's probably safe to say he never made word-lists quite like yours! (Of course, in the days before computers, can you imagine the effort!) But let me try to give you a few honest answers:


Quote
Why is the chapter structured this way? Do you notice these divisions as you read? How does the varying length, as shown above, help or hinder the chapter?



I don't notice the divisions, generally, except when they serve as expedient stopping points during reading. I don't honestly know that the varying length does either help or hinder the chapter. I can't say I've ever been consciously aware of any effect.


Quote
Where do the paragraphs or sentences get shorter and longer? Why there?



I won't get specific, but I will say that I think good prose has a natural tendency to vary in this way. I think of it rather like inspiration and expiration — just like its reader, a readable text needs to breathe. You need that kind of variation to avoid the kind of dense, verging on unreadable text you might find in, say, a monograph on macroeconomic theory. In fact, I wonder whether a similar analysis of Tolkien's more "nonfiction" style writings (e.g., Appendix A) might reveal a greater degree of internal homogeneity in structure that could help to explain why some readers have such trouble with them (as compared to the story proper).


Quote
Why are these two paragraphs significantly longer than any others? Do they have anything in common? Are they too long? How could they be shortened?



No idea. Even these two "long paragraphs" are not really very long. Compare them to the prose of Faulkner, for example, or Joyce. These two don't really jump out at me in any way, I'm sorry to say. Again, I'm not trying to discourage, undermine, or belittle.

In fact, if there's one thing I think we can all agree on, it's that your posts never be little. Wink

Jason Fisher
Lingwë - Musings of a Fish


The Lord of the Rings discussion 2007-2008 – The Two Towers – III.4 “Treebeard” – Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6


Darkstone
Immortal


Sep 22 2008, 4:02pm

Post #3 of 20 (1795 views)
Shortcut
"...it pierced my linguistic heart." [In reply to] Can't Post

Why is the chapter structured this way?

Two reasons. First we start the chapter in the morning, with Pippin getting dressed and eating breakfast in comforting hopeful hobbity fashion. It ends another morning, as Tolkien says, “at the absolute nadir of the fortunes of the West”. (Letters, p. 328.) But it’s not exactly a 24 hour cycle, but a 23 hour cycle, ending, as it were, at the eleventh hour. (A phrase which Tolkien himself uses in the third section.) Interestingly this relates back to Tolkien’s own rebirth of hope at the ending of the The Great War, which ended on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month.

The second reason would of course be William S. Burrough’s discovery of the "23 enigma". (For example, Bishop Ussher calculated the world was created October 23rd, 4004 BC while the Mayans believed the world will end on December 23rd, 2012. Parents each donate 23 chromosomes to the fertilized egg, the human biorhythm cycle is generally 23 days, and it takes 23 seconds for blood to circulate through the human body. Burrough could (and did) go on and on.) Obviously this is a big clue to ultimately resolving all the speculations about the connections of the directions of the winds, the state of the weather, the time of the day, the phases of the moon, etc, etc, in the book. Tongue held firmly in cheek, Tolkien was making a wry statement about apophenia related post-modern novelists like Nabokov, Pynchon, Eco, Curcio, and, of course, Shea and Wilson.


Do you notice these divisions as you read?

Who wouldn’t?


How does the varying length, as shown above, help or hinder the chapter?

It demonstrates how, in the course of a day, certain hours whiz by while others drag on interminably.


Where do the paragraphs or sentences get shorter…

Breakfast, moments of sheer terror, and eucatastrophe.


… and longer?

Boring conferences, suspenseful episodes of rescue, and frantic instances of running around trying to get help.


Why there?

It aptly serves the hobbitocentric viewpoint of the book. Time speeds up and slows down for Pippin according to the circumstances. Note the shortest is Pippin eating breakfast and the longest is Pippin waiting during the siege.


Why are these two paragraphs significantly longer than any others?

They are showing the great emotional impact the two incidents have on Pippin. Indeed, it has been shown that the brain actually slows down time during emotional moments, which is why memories of such incidents are so much clearer than usual.


Do they have anything in common?

Like I said, great emotional impact on Pippin.


Are they too long?

Too long for what?


How could they be shortened?

“The orcs catapulted heads into the city.”

“Pippin saw Faramir.”


Two of these paragraphs follow one on the other in the chapter, and all three clearly have something in common. What?

Pippin.


Which of these paragraphs makes best and worst use of its many sentences?

A Gandalf monologue is nice. Always good to get some insight into his mind.

Beregond comes off as a play-by-play sports announcer on the verge of hysteria, but I think that’s the point. Still feels a bit artificial, though.


Why should this sentence, which explicitly is about unimportant matters, be so long?

That’s the point. Form is following function: “…a captain reporting to his master such matters as had often been heard before, small things of border-war that now seemed useless and petty, shorn of their renown.” Again we sense Tolkien revisiting The Great War, with British commander-in-chief General Douglas Haig, “The Butcher of the Somme”, meticulously going over detailed reports from the front but never actually visiting it in person himself.


I’m not sure if that list is of any use, but having done the rest, it was relatively easy to create. What other kinds of word-sorting would be useful for understanding this chapter?

Etymology. Sorting according to word origin, especially with regards to hobbit, Rohan, and Gondor oriented paragraphs, might be illuminating. Also I think sorting synonymically would be extremely informative.


What I immediately notice is that the sentences’ last words are more varied than their first words. Is this just a function of writing in English, or is Tolkien monotonous in starting his sentences?

In re to the last words I think it’s the poet in Tolkien trying to maintain a rhythmetic diversity. Re the first words, I suppose he could have similarly varied them if he had spoken like Yoda.


These are the twenty most common words in the chapter: the (777); and (477); of (328); he (241); to (206); a (178); in (175); that (169); it (142); his (134); was (128); I (116); they (114); not (104); you (97); said (96); but (95); for (95); as (92); at (87). Nothing unusual as far as I can tell. As you can see, more than half the words in the chapter appear only once. Do any of them seem particularly unusual to you?

Lots of “w’s. As Professor Higgins would say about dustman Alfred P. Doolittle, “Observe the rhythm of his native woodnotes wild.” Indeed, the association with Welshman (very significantly, on his mother's side) Doolittle leads us directly to Tolkien own 1955 valedictory address: “But all the time there had been another call—bound to win in the end, though long baulked by sheer lack of opportunity. I heard it coming out of the west. It struck at me in the names on coal-trucks; and drawing nearer, it flickered past on station-signs, a flash of strange spelling and a hint of a language old and yet alive; even in an 'adeiladwyd 1887', ill-cut on a stone-slab, it pierced my linguistic heart: 'Late Modern Welsh'. (Bad Welsh to some.)"

Love it!!

******************************************
The audacious proposal stirred his heart. And the stirring became a song, and it mingled with the songs of Gil-galad and Celebrian, and with those of Feanor and Fingon. The song-weaving created a larger song, and then another, until suddenly it was as if a long forgotten memory woke and for one breathtaking moment the Music of the Ainur revealed itself in all glory. He opened his lips to sing and share this song. Then he realized that the others would not understand. Not even Mithrandir given his current state of mind. So he smiled and simply said "A diversion.”



batik
Tol Eressea


Sep 22 2008, 6:34pm

Post #4 of 20 (1696 views)
Shortcut
Gondor I [In reply to] Can't Post


Quote
Why is the chapter structured this way? Do you notice these divisions as you read? How does the varying length, as shown above, help or hinder the chapter?


If you are referring to the double/triple(?) spacing then, yes, I noticed and do find that helpful while reading as a way to note changes/transitions within the chapter.


Quote
What I immediately notice is that the sentences’ last words are more varied than their first words. Is this just a function of writing in English, or is Tolkien monotonous in starting his sentences?


Just the way we speak/write/think in the English language. We could express:
The sky is blue/green/red as Blue/green/red is the sky;
I am crazy/happy/sad as Crazy/happy/sad am I; or...you get the idea.
To my ears this sounds *Yoda-ish* but I suppose if one really wanted to avoid starting sentences in a common way, it could be done.

(at work, no book--may get back to this later)




N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Sep 22 2008, 8:01pm

Post #5 of 20 (1694 views)
Shortcut
Yes, the sections as separated by a blank line. [In reply to] Can't Post

And when these divisions fall at the end of a page, where they might be overlooked as merely being part of the blank space at the bottom, the publisher inserts a row of asterisks to indicate the break.

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 22-28 for "The Siege of Gondor".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Sep 22 2008, 9:27pm

Post #6 of 20 (1688 views)
Shortcut
Me neither! [In reply to] Can't Post


Quote
In fact, if there's one thing I think we can all agree on, it's that your posts never be little.


Talk Like a Pirate Day was last week!

The problem with this exercise is that it is both too much and too little. Lots of preliminary data, but no conclusions. Also no comparisons to other chapters, other Tolkien, other authors, all of which are needed to get any meaning out of this accumulation of facts. But I haven't the time for such a project.

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 22-28 for "The Siege of Gondor".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


batik
Tol Eressea


Sep 22 2008, 11:11pm

Post #7 of 20 (1721 views)
Shortcut
y=mx+b??? [In reply to] Can't Post


Quote
Where do the paragraphs or sentences get shorter and longer? Why there?



Ever start working on a problem then forget what the question was?
Anyhow...pragraphs, sentences became blurred with sections but I did find it interesting that 2 of the sections with the fewest paragraphs, 9 and 18, mark time (the third day closed; in the middle of the night-beginning of the 5th day?); another two, 8 and 17, begin with "so"and include some glimpse at wavering hope while summing up quickly the events of Faramir riding out and Gandalf taking charge.



dernwyn
Forum Admin / Moderator


Sep 26 2008, 9:56pm

Post #8 of 20 (1649 views)
Shortcut
Yes, those sections have an interesting slope...er, slant. [In reply to] Can't Post

Angelic


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
"I desired dragons with a profound desire"

"It struck me last night that you might write a fearfully good romantic drama, with as much of the 'supernatural' as you cared to introduce. Have you ever thought of it?"
-Geoffrey B. Smith, letter to JRR Tolkien, 1915


N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Sep 27 2008, 3:53pm

Post #9 of 20 (1635 views)
Shortcut
Correction to word list. [In reply to] Can't Post

Change "life (3)" to "life (4)", and change "live (4)" to "live (3)".

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 22-28 for "The Siege of Gondor".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


a.s.
Valinor


Sep 27 2008, 9:31pm

Post #10 of 20 (1608 views)
Shortcut
It was such a *glaring* error! [In reply to] Can't Post

Good heavens, man, how did you ever catch that?

LOL

Heart

a.s.

"an seileachan"

Pooh began to feel a little more comfortable, because when you are a Bear of Very Little Brain, and you Think of Things, you find sometimes that a Thing which seemed very Thingish inside you is quite different when it gets out into the open and has other people looking at it.

Call Her Emily


N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Sep 29 2008, 2:59am

Post #11 of 20 (1607 views)
Shortcut
Beregond "stiffened, staring out with starting eyes". [In reply to] Can't Post

And Gandalf is "like a small star down on the dusky fields".
I didn't ask about phrases -- who else is described alliteratively?

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 22-28 for "The Siege of Gondor".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Sep 29 2008, 3:30am

Post #12 of 20 (1611 views)
Shortcut
Faramir calls Denethor "sire". [In reply to] Can't Post

Is he using that in the sense of "lord" or "father"?

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 22-28 for "The Siege of Gondor".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


batik
Tol Eressea


Sep 29 2008, 3:55am

Post #13 of 20 (1625 views)
Shortcut
easy [In reply to] Can't Post

Gimli son of Gloin and
Aragorn son of Arathorn Wink


Kimi
Forum Admin / Moderator


Sep 29 2008, 4:46am

Post #14 of 20 (1613 views)
Shortcut
"Lord", I think. [In reply to] Can't Post

Similarly to the way "sir" (which is a form of "sire") is used.

I don't think "sire" in the sense of male parent is typically used as a form of address. Elrond refers to Eärendil as "my sire", but he's speaking of him, not to him.


My writing (including The Passing of Mistress Rose)

Do we find happiness so often that we should turn it off the box when it happens to sit there?

- A Room With a View


FarFromHome
Valinor


Sep 29 2008, 8:52pm

Post #15 of 20 (1600 views)
Shortcut
On the other hand [In reply to] Can't Post

remember that in formal English society, sons called their father "sir" (as well as "father", as Faramir also does, I think). I agree that "sire" doesn't literally mean father here, but perhaps it's still a normal term of address for a son to a noble father in Gondorian society. So not quite the same as Lord - I don't think Faramir ever calls his father that, and conversely, no-one else ever calls him "sire".

Farewell, friends! I hear the call.
The ship’s beside the stony wall.
Foam is white and waves are grey;
beyond the sunset leads my way.
Bilbo's Last Song



Kimi
Forum Admin / Moderator


Sep 29 2008, 10:57pm

Post #16 of 20 (1599 views)
Shortcut
I agree [In reply to] Can't Post

and didn't phrase my post very well :-) I think he's using Sire as a form of Sir rather than an equivalent of Father. "Sir" would probably sound too modern from Faramir (Sam uses it to those socially above him, of course. And Eowyn uses it to Faramir).

I've been on a Jane Austen mini-binge recently, and yes, "Sir" to a father stands out rather dramatically to a modern reader, as does "ma'am" used to their mothers. Although it's also used by unrelated or only distantly related men and women, such as Mr Bingley and Mr Collins addressing Mr Bennet, and Lizzy and her mother addressing Mr Collins. Such a very formal time compared to today! But I don't think "Sir" necessarily implies father any more than "ma'am" does mother.

I notice that Faramir uses "lord" to Aragorn when he first lays eyes on him. I was hoping to find he called him "sire", which would have settled the question :-)


My writing (including The Passing of Mistress Rose)

Do we find happiness so often that we should turn it off the box when it happens to sit there?

- A Room With a View


N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Sep 30 2008, 2:35am

Post #17 of 20 (1625 views)
Shortcut
Pippin twice calls Denethor "sir". // [In reply to] Can't Post

 

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 29-Oct. 5 for "The Ride of the Rohirrim".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Oct 1 2008, 3:25am

Post #18 of 20 (1630 views)
Shortcut
Words unique to this chapter, or nearly so. [In reply to] Can't Post

As noted above, about half of the 2,080 different words appearing in “The Siege of Gondor” are used only once. Most of those, however, are not unique to this chapter. I selected some likely candidates (there may be others I missed; in particular, I skipped all proper names, and compound words like “raven-wings”) and searched for them in the rest of the book. The following 30 words appear only here.

-Food is now doled out by order
-our vigil was not fruitless, though it may have been thankless
-he saw in the middle airs below him five birdlike forms
-also less incalculable and remote: one of the Kings of Men born into a later time
-There deep seats were set about a brazier of charcoal; and wine was brought
-things of border-war that now seemed useless and petty, shorn of their renown
-little of what you have half said or left unsaid is now hidden from me
-That may well befit one of high race, if he sits in power and in peace
-many nights upon my tongue foreboding that worse yet lay in the dregs
-yet with all your subtleties you have not all wisdom
-bells of day had scarcely rung out again, a mockery in the unlightened dark
-Or can it be that you have withdrawn because you are overmatched
-Some have accused you, Mithrandir, of delighting to bear ill news
-unbreakable except by some convulsion that would rend the very earth
-the great catapults were set, with many yells and the creaking of rope and winch
-No hours so dark had Pippin known, not even in the clutches of the Uruk-hai
-by the door of the unlit chamber, mastering his own fears as best he could
-I sent my son forth, unthanked, unblessed, out into needless peril
-Belike the old tales speak well; there is Elvish blood in the veins of that folk
-Fires now raged unchecked in the first circle of the City
-No tomb! No long slow sleep of death embalmed
-ancient walls and many-pillared balusters looming in the swaying lantern-beam
-and stood then with bowed heads as mourners beside a bed of death
-But send not for the embalmers. Bring us wood quick to learn
-and he will have no time to spare for dying men or madmen
-And as for orders, I think you have a madman to deal with, not a lord

The uniqueness of the words above extends also to minor variations: not only is “catapults” found only in this chapter, but “catapult” is not found anywhere else in the book. Similarly “dole” for “doled”, “braziers” for “brazier”, etc.

There are another seven words found only in this chapter for which variants in number or tense are readily found in other chapters. So “crumble”, “despair”, “herd”, “hound”, “stroll”, “unfold”, and “wax” are not uncommon, but these particular words appear only here:

-The house of his spirit crumbles
-and I will not think of dying until he despairs of life
-still bunched and herded, within the range of bowmen on the wall
-lurking in the hills until all are hounded out
-Together they strolled out to the walls
-As his story was unfolded of his meeting with Frodo
-The Enemy has found it, and now his power waxes

There are a further twenty-one words that appear in only one or two other chapters. Maybe you can make something of one of these repeated uses?
-Then we may feel that our vigil was not fruitless
- - - The Riders had returned to their silent ominous vigil (III.3)
-surcoat of black, but broidered on the breast in silver with the token of the Tree
- - - a small space, curtained off with broidered hangings, and strewn with skins (V.3)
-Now they sat side by side again in the embrasure looking eastward
- - - many tall windows were cut with deep embrasures in the climbing walls (III.10)
- - - there was an embrasure in the walls with a stone seat beneath the sill (V.1)
-very: tired out with idleness and waiting. I have kicked my heels
- - - given over wholly to idleness and ease, and some fought among themselves (IV.5)
-some broil of fume from the Mountain of Fire that he sends to darken hearts
- - - I can cut you some rashers of bacon and broil them (IV.9)
-coming from the North, like a small star down on the dusky fields
- - - against the dusky sky the bleak and treeless backs of the hills (I.11)
-he shouted wildly, like an onlooker at a great race urging on a runner
- - - squib or cracker was forthcoming, to the disappointment of the onlookers (I.1)
- - - passed into the city and died away. The onlookers stood silent for a while (V.1)
-Some twenty-five leagues as a bird flies
- - - We want man-food for twenty-five (IV.9)
-Your bearing is lowly in my presence, yet it is long now since you turned
- - - Death in the morning and at day’s ending / lords took and lowly (V.6)
-For Boromir was loyal to me and no wizard’s pupil
- - - the black slit of its pupil opened on a pit, a window into nothing (II.7)
- - - to a son after me, who would be his own master and no wizard’s pupil (V.7)
-Enough to perceive that there are two follies to avoid
- - - they fell into evils and follies. Many became enamoured of the Darkness (V.5)
-they have long been building floats and barges in great numbers in East Osgiliath
- - - By it were moored many boats and barges. Some were brightly painted (V.8)
-They swarmed across like beetles
- - - Worms or beetles or something slimy out of holes (IV.2)
-Some have accused you, Mithrandir, of delighting to bear ill news
- - - So they both lived, delighting in their own devices, and feared no assault (IV.9)
-Faramir, as he held at bay a mounted champion of Harad, had fallen to the earth
- - - Captains and champions fell or fled before them (III.7)
-weapons fall from nerveless hands while into their minds a blackness came
- - - her right arm lying cold and nerveless on the coverlet (V.8)
-they came, reckless of their loss as they approached, still bunched and herded
- - - the rabbits cut up lay simmering in their pans with the bunched herbs (IV.4)
-Go back to your bonfire! And I? I will go now to my pyre
- - - cut down hundreds of trees, and made a great bonfire in the Forest (I.6)
- - - a wide bare space not far inside where the bonfire was made (I.6)
- - - [Also two instances of “Bonfire Glade” in I.6.]
-upon each table lay a sleeping form, hands folded, head pillowed upon stone
- - - Pippin fell asleep, pillowed on a green hillock (I.3)
-It was against the Gate that he would throw his heaviest weight
- - - I am sure you have given me all the heaviest stuff (I.3)
- - - a few steps: the heaviest and the most reluctant he had ever taken (IV.10)
-founded of black steel, was shaped in the likeness of a ravening wolf
- - - wolves that had once come ravening out of the North in bitter white winters (Pro.)
-who alone among the free horses of the earth endured the terror, unmoving
- - - nothing, but to prop himself against the unmoving stone and listen (IV.10)

Note that three of these words –“bonfire”, “champion”, “delighting”– also appear in the appendices.

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 29-Oct. 5 for "The Ride of the Rohirrim".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.


batik
Tol Eressea


Oct 1 2008, 3:41am

Post #19 of 20 (1613 views)
Shortcut
alright, NEB--here you go... [In reply to] Can't Post

From "Break on Through"

Quote

Words dissemble
Words be quick
Words resemble walking sticks
Plant them
They will grow
Watch them waver so

I'll always be
a word-man
Better than a birdman


Assuming this is by Jim Morrison-found in Riordan and Prochnicky's book on the *Lizard King*


N.E. Brigand
Half-elven


Oct 5 2008, 9:05pm

Post #20 of 20 (1631 views)
Shortcut
Sentences that begin identically. [In reply to] Can't Post

Another list, showing sentences whose first three or more words are the same.
The numbers refer to the chapter's sections and paragraphs.

And as he watched, it seemed to him that Denethor grew old before his eyes, as if something had snapped in his proud will, and his stern mind was overthrown. (XVI, 147)
And as he did so a great fear fell on all, defender and foe alike; and the hands of men drooped to their sides, and no bow sang. (XXI, 188)

‘And when I heard of Cirith Ungol–––’ (VI, 81)
‘And when I bid you thrust in a torch.’ (XX, 168)

But the Lord of the City was master of his Council, and he was in no mood that day to bow to others. (VII,89)
But the Lord of the City, Beregond, has fallen before his city is taken.’ (XX, 178)

For a moment Faramir’s restraint gave way. (V, 60)
For a moment the eyes of Denethor glowed again as he faced Gandalf, and Pippin felt once more the strain between their wills; but now almost it seemed as if their glances were like blades from eye to eye, flickering as they fenced. (V, 71)
For a moment all was still. (XXI, 188)

‘Go now and rest as you may.’ (V, 78)
‘Go now, and die in what way seems best to you.’ (XIX, 160)

Grond crawled on. (XXI, 187)
Grond crawled on. (XXI, 188)

‘He came with me from the land of the Halflings,’ he said. (IV, 42)
‘He came with me.’ (IV, 42)

He did not answer. (II, 10)
He did not relish the idea of singing any song of the Shire to the Lord of Minas Tirith, certainly not the comic ones that he knew best; they were too, well, rustic for such an occasion. (II, 16)

‘He would have remembered his father’s need, and would not have squandered what fortune gave.’ (V, 59)

‘He would have brought me a mighty gift.’ (V, 59)
‘He would have stretched out his hand to this thing, and taking it he would have fallen.’ (V, 62)

‘He would have kept it for his own, and when he returned you would not have known your son.’ (V, 62)

‘I must find Gandalf.’ (XX, 169)
‘I must find Gandalf at once.’ (XX, 178)

‘If I had this thing now in the deep vaults of this citadel, we should not then shake with dread under this gloom, fearing the worst, and our counsels would be undisturbed.’ (V, 69)
‘If I had!’ (V, 72)

In rode the Lord of the Nazgûl, under the archway that no enemy ever yet had passed, and all fled before his face. (XXII, 192)
In rode the Lord of the Nazgûl. (XXII, 192)

It was dark and dim all day. (II, 19)
It was dark on the climbing road between ancient walls and many-pillared balusters looming in the swaying lantern-beam. (XX, 166)

‘Let us not forget the danger on our left.’ (VII, 92)
‘Let us not speak of that!’ said Faramir. (V, 77)

Pippin trembled fearing some dreadful stroke. (V, 71)
Pippin trembled, fearing that Gandalf would be stung to sudden wrath, but his fear was needless. (XI, 117)

‘Rohan will not come now.’ (XIV, 137)
‘Rohan will not come.’ (XV, 141)

‘Send for my servants and then go.’ (XIX, 160)
‘Send for my servants!’ (XIX, 162)

‘So be it,’ said Faramir. (V, 56)
‘So be it!’ cried Denethor. (V, 57)

The drums rolled. (XXI, 184)
The drums rolled louder. (XXI, 185)
The drums rolled wildly. (XXI, 188)
The drums rolled and rattled. (XXI, 189)

The next day came with a morning like a brown dusk, and the hearts of men, lifted for a while by the return of Faramir, sank low again. (VII, 87)
The next day, though the darkness had reached its full and grew no deeper, it weighed heavier on men’s hearts, and a great dread was on them. (X, 103)

The retreat became a rout. (XIII, 127)
The retreat became an onslaught. (XIII, 131)

Then suddenly there was a tumult of fierce cries. (XIII, 126)
Then suddenly there was a dreadful cry and a great shock, and a deep echoing boom. (XX, 183)

‘Yes,’ said Pippin. (II, 14)
‘Yes,’ said Pippin, ‘very: tired out with idleness and waiting.’ (III, 25)
‘Yes,’ said Pippin, Gandalf, too, is anxious.’ (III, 27)
‘Yes,’ said Pippin, to the Silent Street.’ (XX, 176)

‘You are weary of this day?’ said Beregond. (III, 24)
‘You are weary, I see,’ said Denethor. (V, 76)

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>
We're discussing The Lord of the Rings in the Reading Room, Oct. 15, 2007 - Mar. 22, 2009!

Join us Sep. 29-Oct. 5 for "The Ride of the Rohirrim".

+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=
How to find old Reading Room discussions.

 
 

Search for (options) Powered by Gossamer Forum v.1.2.3

home | advertising | contact us | back to top | search news | join list | Content Rating

This site is maintained and updated by fans of The Lord of the Rings, and is in no way affiliated with Tolkien Enterprises or the Tolkien Estate. We in no way claim the artwork displayed to be our own. Copyrights and trademarks for the books, films, articles, and other promotional materials are held by their respective owners and their use is allowed under the fair use clause of the Copyright Law. Design and original photography however are copyright © 1999-2012 TheOneRing.net. Binary hosting provided by Nexcess.net

Do not follow this link, or your host will be blocked from this site. This is a spider trap.