Dec 27 2012, 3:51am
Post #1 of 1
Google translation from Polish...not perfect of course....with consent of the author. A better English translation is in the works.
The knight Tolkien, Red Wolf and Beautiful Forest - Google translation
The knight Tolkien, Red Wolf and Beautiful Forest - Google translation
The knight Tolkien, Red Wolf and Beautiful Forest
(IV)11.11.10, 22:58, added by GaladhornIs the ancestor of Professor Tolkien could fight under the banner of the Teutonic Knights in 1410? Tolkien among the bishops of Warmia? Jack Tołkinach rhodium, or Tolkowcu Tolku? What Tolkien did in Beautiful Forest? These and more questions, trying to answer the fourth part of a series of genealogical lineage Derdziński Richard Tolkien.Marklingerode family coat (it belonged to the Tolk / Tolkin / Tolkien) shows in the red two jaws szczupacze the pole teeth together, the helmet two vulture wings folded shoulders to the left and two jaws on them as a shield."He was a knight, a man worthy and right (...)" - Geoffrey Chaucer wrote in the fourteenth century, in his Knight's Tale. And I want to tell you about a knight clan settled in the goods Tolkińskich in Natangii (1), who served his oldest Member, the commander Balga the red banner with the image of a wolf. One of the members of the family was a knight - a knight actually, because he wore the title of the so-called documents. edeler kneht and kneht 'squire' was something of lesser importance than ritter 'knight' - Tolkien called Peter von Powarschen and sat on mająteczku in Kolbienen (2). And although we do not know for sure if he was "worthy and right" and whether "Since he began his riding expedition / Unit chivalrous love and glory, honor and loyalty, tis dworność, nobility" - as the hero chaucerowskich kanterberyjskich Stories - definitely not the values ​​were ideal for him. He had his head flushed great deeds, the desire for freedom, politics ... In any case, his father, Berthold von Powerschen Tolk (ritter, vassal commander Balga, d. 1424, he wrote in the fourteenth century, "Tolck"), Lord of Powierszach, serving under bałgijską banner could meet the said literary hero (if that actually lived), because Chaucer's Knight frequented the Teutonic Knights in Prussia rejzach of interest to us during the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries:(...) Many times it first planting Hen from other nations in Prussia; Trips with a cross in Lithuania and Russia No one took place not so often equal to him.("Knight's Tale" crowd. and annotated by Przemyslaw Mroczkowski).Who keeps track of the history of this research from the very beginning (from the article Tadeusz A. Olszanski Fri "What do we know about the ancestors of JRR Tolkien (contribution)" and from my article "Is Tolkien came from Warmia", "Tołkiny in Warmia Tolkien family nest?" and "From Tołkinów to Tolkien"), knows that the impetus for our study was the information from German sources onomastycznych wschodniopruskim origins of the names of Tolkien. Probably all of Tolkien - and those British, American, and less well-known, but mainly German - come from one area of ​​the Baltic Sea Prussia - first of Natangii, then in the vicinity of Konigsberg. This name since the sixteenth century appears in many forms. In addition to primary sources present in the oldest forms of Tolkien - probably derived from the fifteenth-century forms Tolkin / Tolkyn - we have suspected so. etymologizowanie secondary (ie, explain the foreign names on the basis of a different language, it's all about the so-called etymology. folk from the German adjective tollkühn 'insanely brave, daring', from the fifteenth-century form of lower średniodolnoniemieckiej kone and średniowysokoniemieckiej tolküene - 'temerarius') forms Tollkiehn , Tollkühn and numerous wartianty these forms.Our research has come from the words of the called the best sources for specialist area of ​​interest to us, Max Mechowo (Deutsche Familiennamen prußischer Herkunft, p 99):Tolkien, Tollkühn: derived from the name of the local Tolkynen, then Tolksdorf. Tolks meant the prusku (staroprusku) 'translator, the one that says,' and so Tolkien is something like 'the one who is from the village of Translators'.Have verified that there are areas of interest to us for two villages Tolksdorf (lit. 'planted by the village, belonging to the Tolk') - are today Tolkowiec (commune Płoskinia) (3) and Tołkiny (commune Korsze). Added to this is the village Tolks (now Tolko in the community Bartoszyce). It is unlikely that these names are also connected Tolkemit (now Tolkmicko) (3). All the towns are close to each other on the border Natangii and Warmia, the Duchy of Prussia, which since 1525, was overwhelmingly Lutheran. All of them were created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in the Teutonic Commandery (a district administrative Comtat) bałgijskiej (4). Tolksdorf bałgijski and Tolks were founded at the initiative of the knightly family of Tolka aka Tolkien. Translation, however, is misleading Mechowo that analyzing Tolksdorf name translates it as 'village Translators' - a better translation is 'planted by the village (belonging to) Tolka'.Looking for the source (5) mentioned by Mechowo forms Tolkynen discovered an amazing story of one of the most interesting families of knights in Prussia. And now the story I want to say a few words.Knights of the Powierszach (German Powarschen) belong to one family line Tolk, the so-called settled. Tolkińskich goods (German Tolckschen Güter), which in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries included the villages in komornictwie Rastemburg, Bartenstein and Preußisch Eylau (6). The two lived at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth century, representatives of the family, cousins ​​Matthias Peter Tolk Tolk and more or less at the same time, in the middle of the fifteenth century, modify their family name by adding the ending-OTHER SETTINGS (as if tip-in + l mn.-en). Then the graphic looks like this: Matz Tolkynen (document 1440) and Peter Tolkyne or Tolkynen (document of 1440, see footnote 2), the son of the first stores in one of the documents in your name as Tolxyn (as if Tolks-in, in the fifteenth century, the language in the documents Middle High German often / s / replace / i / and later / e /, for example, is today Ballgischen gebytte Balgischen Gebiete 'territories bałgijskie'). Getting to know the family tree (7), it is easy to imagine that the modification of the name may have arisen from the mundane of reasons - many names were repeated in the family, the names were still rather protonazwiskami of niedoprecyzowanej form. To distinguish one from the other branches Tolków want to add to the distinctive end.This trend to change the name is clearly visible in the family tree Tolków fifteenth century. For example, Paul Tolk, brother of Peter, "Tolkynena", in a document from 1450, signed by the name of "Pewers" from the name of his father's estate and the name of the line from Powarschen. His nephew, Martin, son of Matthias, in 1470 nabywszy property in Loßainen (Łężany today in the municipality of Reszel) to permanently adopt the name von Loßainen / Luzjański. Luzjańscy wore the same coat of arms as mentioned at the beginning of the text Marklingerode. One of his sons is the Bishop of Warmia (Fabian Luzjański, 1470-1523), and the second will be governor Chelmno (John Luzjański). How do Polish names and Polish sympathies? My mother was a Polish noble family of Koscielski. Oh, the power of Polish Jagiellon Polonization associated with this part of Prussia.The great development of Alina Naruszewicz-Duchlińskiej (see footnote 5), we read of many names created in the examined period, which was formed by adding the ending-in for the nickname, name, etc. We can accept protonazwiska the mechs that Tolkynen form of the name from the name of the local . According Mechowo Tolkynen an early form of the name Tolksdorf (Tołkiny here, today in the municipality of Korsze). The sources we find the term Tolkyner Güter (document 1456) - it is possible that it means "Good Tolkińskie" which we described in footnote 6 Immediately comes to mind Polish names end forming a possessive-in: * Tolkin then mean 'belonging to the Tolka', for example, completely hypothetical Tolkin Manor "mansion belonging Tolka '. Influence of Polish is not a completely impossible, since both Peter "Tolkynen" and Matthias (Matz) "Tolkynen" in the turbulent time of the mid-fifteenth century, are subjects of the Polish king Casimir (more at Wikipedia). The consequences of such a solution for all our theories on the origin of the name Tolkien is really intimidating!In my opinion, you can adopt a different, more probable theory. Knights modify Tolk family name to distinguish one from the other branch of the family - especially since they live close to each other. And so Peter Tolk as plain bollard from the sidelines Tolków (not a knight) is called (and call themselves) "Little Tolkien; Tolkicem" adding to the family name-in which onomastyce this area and this period also performed spieszczenia function (eg .'s name from the personal name Kerlin Kerl, this equals apelatywowi kerl 'peasant lad, guy'; names of people komornictwa Lidzbark, p 134). And so we Tolk Tolkin (in the record of this time Tolkyn, but we have such names Tolkin from 1413 - note 8, from the fourteenth century / s / is written in the name / e /, which is confirmed by materials from FamilySearch in the vicinity of Konigsberg). Matthis Tolkin and Peter Tolkin wrote their names may be in the form of plural families Tolkynen as representatives of "Tolkiców". There is another possibility - it was the second modification to distinguish branches of the family: Tolk> Tolkin> Tolkinen. In this case, the name should be the name of the category anthroponyms (from protonazwisk), although there Mechow proposes a category name from toponyms. The issue is open and examine the welds certainly interesting.In footnote 7, we read that at the end of the sixteenth century, there was no longer any legitimate descendant of the family Tolk, a good Tolkińskie fall into the hands of other families. Meanwhile, sources genealogy of the late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century, we find in the vicinity of Konigsberg, especially in the vicinity of Schönwalde ('beautiful forest') a large number of people, probably the peasants, not the nobility, named Tolkien. From there, the earliest known examples of the use of the name in the form as we know, for example, a family tradition of JRR Tolkien. Taking into account the fact that around this city are lucky because there are preserved parish records from the years 1671-1874 (9) it can be assumed that the name was not uncommon in the vicinity of Königsberg - a little over 100 miles from the Goods Tolkińskich. Tolkien (with variants Tollkühn, Tolkiehn, etc.) seem to migrate within the first Lutheran Prussia (and in the following centuries throughout the Kingdom of Prussia and other German areas) - we meet them in Altrossgarten, Sackheim, Labiau, in the same Königsberg. Graphic forms of the name, with which we meet in these papers are Tolckien, Tolckiehn, Tolckin, Tolckyn, Tolkien, Tolkin, Tolkihn, Tolkühn, Tollckien, Tollckiehn, Tholkin (10).The sources from FamilySearch can see that the form of Tolkien is older (there is already in the sixteenth century), and the form Tollkühn (as a secondary etymologizacja and Germanization names so that was associated with the adjective formed quite late tollkühn 'insanely brave, daring') is more common later, in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, I recall that the form of Tolkien appears only in times nowoniemieckiego language (it is probably the oldest record of the sixteenth century - around 1560 in Schönwalde is baptized Hans Tolkien, who is getting married about 1584 in the same locality , in the early seventeenth century, at the same place lived another Hans Tolkien, son Crisptina, who with his wife Ursula have children: Barbara, Martin and another man's child).Why this name in that area? In addition to the likelihood that arose independently of our fifteenth-century knights bałgijskich and comes from an unknown source, we must take it into account two other possibilities. The first is related to the illegitimate children of knights. Fabian remember Tolk (d. 1516, son of Matthias Tolka "Matza Tolkynena"), who wrote his name also Tolxyn. It included at the end of the fifteenth century, various offices in Preußisch Eylau (Iławce), close to Konigsberg. His daughter, Anna Tolk married Eberhard von Tettau and thus benefit from the area Tolks (now Tolko) passed into the hands of the family Tettau-Tolks. Matthias may have somewhere in the countryside or in the town of illegal male heir, who took the name of his father: Tolk (s) yn> Tolkien? The same situation could occur in the case of Peter Tolkyne squire, Tolkynen, which is known as a member of the Prussian Union. The fact that no one in the source does not inherit after him, does not mean that he had no male descendants, who continue to suffer his name. We would then have to deal with the name of antroponimu (from the name of arms - footnote 11).The second option involves Mechowo and think of an alternative theory called the local Tolksdorfu or Tolko - it would sound * Tolkin. Then - which was not uncommon in that period - a resident of that * Tolkin, Relocating to the north, take the form of a name toponim the place of origin. This would be equal to the name of the village form.And one more thing. At the beginning of this article suggest that Tolkien could take part in the Battle of Grunwald. Tolk Both Matthias and his brothers were obliged to fight the call of the commander Balga. Department of the Commandery was one of three who managed to escape the slaughter and slavery after the defeat of Grunwald. Balga commander was then (in the years 1410-1412), Count Friedrich von Zollern (Hohenzollern), but his presence in the battle is uncertain. Were they on the battlefield Tolkien? They were certainly bałgijscy brothers and belonging to a Commandery Knights and Knights-guests. I do not think we will know the answer to the question whether you really showed up there Tolkien brothers. Surely they should be ... In Dlugosz, U.S. flags in Banderia Prutenorum Balga says:Banderium comendarie et civitatis Balga, quod ducebat comendator de Balga, sub quo erant fratres militares de ordine et aliqui proprii et aliqui mercenarii milites.Richard "Galadhorn" DerdzińskiIn the next part of our series we will JRR ancestral family legends Tolkien and characters of the legendary Georg von Hohenzollern in 1529, and the elector of Saxony refugee from the beginning the Seven Years War. ___________________________Footnotes:(1) In the original sense of the term tribal Comtat Bałgijska Warmia was part of a broad sense - the geographical term coincided more or less with all created in the thirteenth century, the Diocese of Warmia. Then he took the call only within the Warmia bishops of Warmia dominion (it had the characteristic shape of an ax returned to the south-east. So it is conceived today Warmia. Therefore some sources treat the area north of the border in the strict sense of Warmia as Natangię.(2) The sources of his time wrote to Peter and Peter Tolkynen Tolkyne. Sometimes, as Peter von Powersche. So, in a solemn oath of 5 May 1440:120th 12th Edelleute aus dem Gebiete Balga. [1440, May 5]Philips vortex Beyseleden von und des Peter Knecht Tolkynen Balgesschen gebietes, bekennen etc.. - Und mit eyntrechtigem Willen Guttene unser geloben Erben und aller vorheysen etc.. - Iuue- helt, vor uns, unsir Erben, ouch und die czukumfftig n sint, STET etc.. - Wir haben und Peter Philips vorgenant von vollenkonimender macht, eyntracht befelens wegen und unser unser aller Erben segeile laessen anhangen diesem brieffe. Gescr. und geg. the spring unsers hern vierczlienhundert und der vierczig am tage Hymmelfart unsers herren.Also in the founding document of the Prussian Union, where we have:Von Beyzeleiden Phillips, Peter von erer Tolkyne aus dem eigenen personnel Ballgischen gebytte.andus dem Balgischen Gebiete: Philippus von Byseleyden, Peter von PowerscheKolbienen is in town today Kolwiny Barciany.(3) Although its name probably derives from a nickname Tolka 'translator' (<Prussian. Tulki 'ts.'). For Tolksdorfu of Warmia (now called Tolkowcem) do not know much. Probably it was not discussed here never Tolk family / Tolkin. But it is well known the origin of its name and the history of creation. Based on documents from the years 1300-1301 can be described as the creation of Tolksdorfu.In the former Prussian lauks (the term of the settlement of tribal Prussian day, Lat. Campus, pol. Farmland, German feld. Compact topographic-economic whole, the area of ​​which is the subject of the economic life of its inhabitants. Wielodworcza is a settlement. Fourteenth century the term borrowed for settlements founded by the Teutonic Knights) named Demyta (then German Demuth, today Demity), in areas stripped of Prussia after the 2nd half. The thirteenth century, which were in Komornictwie Mehlsack (today Pieniężno) representatives from the time Warmian Bishop Henry Fleming's charter documents issued by the former son zasadźcy village in the area, Bernhard (who planted the village Bernhardisdorf - Tolksdorfu predecessor). This son is a translator (śrwniem. Tolk, Lat. Interpres) at the court of the bishop and his name is Heinrich. Goes down in history as Heinrich Tolka. His village is now called Bernhardsdorf not, and Tolksdorf (Tolkowiec in town today Płoskinia). Country created on 60 fields fell and entitles the Chelmno (this is the first village of Chelmno in Warmia!), Which is associated with a number of benefits of the new system of municipal, law of inheritance (can inherit a shunt daughters and relatives, not just the children, as in villages for almost Prussian), with years wolnizny. Who is Bernhard and his son Heinrich Tolka? They belong to the layer of the Prussian feudal origin (such feudal lords is close to 20% among all 100 known lords of that time - the rest of the Germans). They are the most ancient representatives of the tribal aristocracy, who either for services to the Church of Warmia during the "apostasy" (Prussian pagan rebellion), or the service of the Church as a bailiffs, interpreters (in addition to our well known Heinrich Tolka Bishop Johannes Peytane interpreter) and mayors receive give gravity (Pollakówny book, page 71). Bernhard, and later named after the German Heinrich, who received the baptism. You may come from other lands (such as feudal lords give the earth receive most often in areas far from their native land). In the new village of German settlers probably live. Feudal manor was probably the nearby Demitach (German Demuth). To the same "box" settlement (prus. lauks) are also Jarzębiec (German Schoenau) and the same Demity (German Demuth).(4) God is called Бальга today and is in the Russian part of Prussia, in the District of Kaliningrad. The banner, acquired in the Battle of Grunwald by the Polish-Lithuanian army described in the fifteenth century, Jan Dlugosz.(5) As I understand the source of the Codex diplomaticus mainly Ordinis Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum and very detailed study on the noble Prussian family Tolk (aka Tolkin) of the journal Zeitschrift des Harz-Vereins für Geschichte und Alterthumskunde (1868). The article stated there Fri "Ein von Geschlecht Harze in Deutsch-Ordenslande Preußen" stubbornly trying to derive Tolck named Matthias (d. 1379) of turyńsko Markelingerode-Saxon race, but made a very interesting analysis of the sources through which I present here the story of the owners' property tolkińskich ". Even if Tolck Matthias, lord of goods and Kirschitten Tolks came from Thuringia and Saxony, Tolkin's name appeared for the first time in Prussia, in Fabian aka Tolk Tolkin ("Tolxyn") and Peter Tolk aka Tolkin ("Tolkyne", "Tolkynen" ). Proved to be a helpful work-Duchlińskiej Alina Naruszewicz Fri The names of the people komornictwa Lidzbark (1500-1772), Olsztyn 2007.(6) Good Tolkińskie (Tolkscher Güter) in the early sixteenth century, they looked like this:Komornictwo Rastemburg (Kętrzyn): "Tolcksdorf" (Tolksdorf / Tołkiny) - 30 and a half Lana, "Pleignick" (Plotnick / Płutniki?) - 5 fiefsKomornictwo Bartenstein (Bartoszyce): "Tolks" (Tolks / Tolko, the manor and village) - 35 fiefs, "Kl. Krischitten "(Kerschitten / Kiersity?) - 4 lans, 2 acresKomornictwo Preußisch Eylau (now Bagrationovsk, Polish Prussian Iława): "Grossitten" (?) - 5 fiefs, 2 acres, "Powarschen" (Powarschen / Powiersze) - 7 fiefs, "Bartelsdorf" (?) - 1 acre meadowToday is a small village in the county Bartoszyce and Kętrzyn (and probably also in the District of Kaliningrad - you have to identify the settlements "Grossitten" and "Bartelsdorf"). The data comes from a document issued by Albrecht von Hohenzollern to Eberhard von Tettau, husband of Anna Tolk, daughter of Fabian. The document is from the October 15, 1533(7) drew them on several pages.Matthias Tolk ("Tolck") from Markelingerode, died 1379 (his nickname comes from the name of Tolks and Tolksdorf) had four sons, named Matthias, Clauko (name of Prussian origin?), Nitsche ("Nickel") and Berthold.Matthias is the oldest pan to "Tolcks, Spittehnen, Urdappen" (mentioned in documents from the years 1379, 1390, 1400, 1404) served as the national court in Brandenburg (1391). His eldest son, also named Matthias (like his grandfather and father) is the master of the "Tolks, Cromargen, Plecknick" - in the year 1456 serves as a captain in Schippenbeil (today Sępolno). First, work on the side of the Teutonic Knights, is associated with knights komornictwa Bartenstein (Bartoszyce), then goes over to the Polish kings. His son is Fabian Tolk ("Tolck", "Tolxyn"), as amended. 1516, acting authorities komornictwa Preußisch Eylau (1474, 1504). Apparently, thanks to him, Fabian received the baptismal name of the future bishop of Warmia, Fabian Luzjański (von Losainen), Bishop in the years 1512-1523, "Lutheran infected with errors" (see Wikipedia). Fabian - as far as we know - did not have a male heir. His daughter, Anna Tolk ("Tolck"), married Eberhard v. Tettau and thus good Tolkińskie (see footnote 6) passed into the hands of the family Tettau.The youngest son of Matthias Tolk is Berthold von Markelingerode Tolk ("Tolck") from Powarschen (Powiersze), von Loseinen (Loßainen / Łężany) was the founder of another line Tolków. He had four sons, named Hans, Peter, Paul, and Matthias. It was his son Peter in 1440 joining the Teutonic Prussian Union. Peter used a variety of names Tolk in the form of "Tolkynen". He had no descendants, like his brother, Paul. He sat on the property for the Kolwinach / Kolbienen (today in the municipality of Barciany). The eldest son Berthold, Hans, took over the estate in Powarschen and half Reddenau. He had a wife with the family von Prock and son Erhard. Erchard had no male heir, his daughter, she realized the man Achatza von Zehmen.Highlights are going Tolka children Matthias, lord of Powarschen (Powierszu) and Loßainen (Luzjanach, today Łężanach). He had sons, Martin (Martin) and Nicolaus. Martin Tolk (d. 1516), margrave of Rossel (Reszel) adopted the name in 1470 from Loßainen, Polish Luzjański, I bought the rustic good (today is a village in the municipality of Łężany Reszel). He joined the Polish king, he married Elizabeth Kościelska. His famous son was the bishop of Warmia Luzjański Fabian (1470-1523), Governor Jan Luzjański Chelm (d. 1551), Albrecht, Lord of Luzjanach and Moldytach (who died childless) and daughter Elizabeth, whose son, Martin, took over the estate luzjańsko-moldyckie (Loßainen-Molditten).At the end of the sixteenth century, there is no male heirs line that began with the end of the Tolk Matthias sixteenth century Tolkińskie get right into the hands of other families from Tettau-Tolks, zu Eulenburg and others.(8) A document from the exit of the Prussian nobility in Malbork, March 26, 1413:VFF Geschen vnserm huse Marienburg in der jarczal Christi 1400 vnd 13-den Jares am Sontag oculi vnder dessert nochgeschreben ritter, Knecht vnd ​​ingesegelen STET, der gebitte Culmen, Elbing, Cris- Purge, Balge, Osterode, Dirssaw, Sthum, STET der Culmen, Thorn, Elbing vnd Danczk, Augustin as Czegenberge, Heinrich von Banking, Thomas von Tesschaw, Niclos Von Tergusch, Niclos von Schillingsdorf, Jorge von Rogitten, Jon Swynechen, Namyr Wi1czhin von Ritter, Hannus Ryman, Lodwig von Mortangen, Augustin von der Francze, Albrecht von Mechaw, Cuncze as Clemend, Johannes Wertram vnd Mattis Tolkin Knecht, VFF dese der wir von der gemeyne reader manschaft von Rittern, knechten vnd steten des landes feel Prussen allesampt gebruchen.(9) Source: Ortsfamilienbuch des Kirchspiels Heiligenwald, Verfasser und Herausgeber. There are about 25 thousand recorded. parishioners of the village: Kaimen, Schönwalde, Groß Legitten, Arnau et al. Schönwalde it today Ярославское / Jarosławskoje in the District of Kaliningrad. The parish church for the village - still exists today - was in Heiligenwald (today Uszakowo also under the administration of the territory of Russia).(10) Source: http://www.plew.info/ofb_schoenwalde.htm(11) "of events, who's able to find some true or false papers, (...) a lot multiply the 'dictusów', though in the seventeenth century, said" - J. Bystroń Polish names, Lviv, 1927, page 77Entry Categories: Biography Tolkien Linguistics